Dr Panagiota Manti
Manti, P. and Watkinson, D. (2011). Hot-tinning of low tin bronzes. In Metal 2010. Proceedings of the Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Metal Working Group, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 11-15 October 2010. Mardikian, P., Chemello, C., Watters, C., and Hull, P. (eds), Clemson University, Charleston: 92-98. (ISBN 978-0-9830399-2-1)
Abstract: Identification of hot-tinning on corroded bronze is often a challenging task due to the various mechanisms by which shiny or grey surface finishes can be formed. The nature of intermetallic compounds formed during hot-tinning changes during use because of solid state diffusion of copper, or due to application of heat at temperatures above the melting point of tin. To identify their presence, a clear understanding of tinning microstructures must be combined with knowledge of their forms relative to corrosion structures developed from general corrosion of the underlying bronze. This study reports on the examination and identification of the intermetallic phases associated with tinning. Reported experimental work is designed to examine aspects of the formation and detection of intermetallic compounds that can be used to discuss the challenges associated with definitive identification of tinning on low-tin bronzes.
Manti, P. Henderson, J. and Watkinson, D. (2011). Reflective practice in conservation education. Preprints of the ICOM-CC 16th Triennial Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, September 19-23, 2011. The International Council of Museums – Committee for Conservation (ISBN 9789899752207)
Abstract: Higher education should develop the core blueprint for the critical and reflective thinking that conservation professionals will employ and further develop during the remainder of their career. This paper defines and discusses reflective practice in conservation education using examples drawn from teaching and assessment methods in place at Cardiff University. Feedback reveals the challenges that students face in developing reflective thinking and the difficulty of offering evidence for this. The complex role of tutors in developing reflective thinking is identified. Reflective learning can significantly contribute to developing reflective and critical conservation practitioners.
Manti P. and Watkinson D. (2009). From Homer to hoplite: scientific investigations of Greek copper alloy helmets. Chapter 12. In: Science and Technology in Homeric Epics. Paipetis, S. A. (Ed.). History of Mechanism and Machine Science Series No 6. Springer Science Publications, pp: 167-180. ISBN: 978-1-4020-8783-7 (Hard Cover). Link
Abstract: Homer's Iliad contains the earliest account of Greek armour technology, with heroes such as Hector reported as wearing helmets that are flashing and shiny. Corrosion of helmets during their burial limits understanding of their original appearance in antiquity. Evidence of their original appearance is based mainly on interpretation of ancient literature and numerous artistic representations of helmeted warriors on pottery. Shields decorated with enamel, gold and tin are described in the Iliad and this supports the hypothesis that such surface treatment technology could have been used on helmets. Fragments from two archaic period helmets were analysed using SEM/EDX. One of the helmets was tin-plated. This and a similarly dated helmet in the British Museum are of the earliest recorded examples of tinning in the Mediterranean. This raises questions about the original appearance of Greek helmets, visibility of individuals on the battlefield and their status. A large scale investigation of Greek helmets is underway to address these points and examine the possibility that tinning in armour may go back to Homeric times.
Henderson J. and Manti P. (2008). Improving access to collections for sampling. In:Conservation and Access. Contributions to the London Congress 15-19 September 2008. Saunders, D. Townsend, J.H. and Woodcock S. (eds).The International Institute for Conservation, 22nd Biennial Congress. IIC: London, pp: 115-119. ISBN: 0954816927 Link
Abstract: The commitment to increasing access to collections has resulted in concepts such as ‘acceptable’ rates of damage. This new pragmatism has yet to be developed into a consistent approach to access for analysis. This paper uses a case study of the scientific examination of early Greek copper alloy helmets to illustrate a range of problems encountered by researchers. In the context of the case study it considers national and political criteria, the policies and procedures of museums and professional ethical codes. The paper also considers additional barriers that can be encountered by younger researchers, who may be considered less credible than their more established colleagues, and discusses strategies that they can use to increase the likelihood of gaining access to samples.
Manti P. and Watkinson D. (2007). Examination of Greek bronze helmets: sampling and project design. In Metal 07. Proceedings of the ICOM-CC Metal Working Group International Triennial Meeting. Amsterdam, 17-21 September 2007, C. Degrigny, R. van Langh, I. Joosten and B. Ankersmit (eds), Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, pp: 78-82. Link
Abstract: Difficulties met when requesting invasive sampling of museum objects are described and strategies for successful applications are offered. The paper focuses on experiences during sample collection for a project to analyse early Greek copper alloy helmets. This project will examine in a later stage, helmet compositions and surface coatings then link this to original appearance and manufacturing technologies.
Tite M.S., Manti P. and Shortland A.J. (2007). A technological study of ancient faience from Egypt. Journal of Archaeological Science Volume 34, Issue 10, pp: 1568-1583. Link to pdf
Abstract: The chemical compositions and microstructures of some 35 faience objects from Egypt spanning the period from the Middle Kingdom through to the 22nd dynasty are determined using analytical scanning electron microscopy. Replicate faience beads glazed in the laboratory using the efflorescence and cementation methods are similarly investigated. In efflorescence glazing, there appears to be preferential efflorescence of soda over potash, and in cementation glazing, preferential take up of potash over soda into the glaze. These data are then used to try to infer the raw materials and methods of glazing employed in the production of the ancient faience. The glaze/glass phases present in the faience differ significantly in composition from that of New Kingdom glass. This could be due either to the use of different plant ashes or to changes in the composition of the plant ashes during the production of faience and/or glass. Although it is only rarely possible to determine with certainty whether ancient faience was glazed by efflorescence, cementation or application, the observed microstructures provide an indication of the approach adopted to achieve desired performance characteristics such as strength.
Gosling J., Manti P. & Nicholson P.T. (2004). Discovery and conservation of a hoard of votive bronzes from the Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara. Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 2, 1 http://www.PalArch.nl PDF available here
Abstract: This paper outlines the discovery of a hoard of votive bronzes from the Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara, and gives the background to the original work at the site by Professor W.B. Emery. This collection of material gives an interesting insight into the range of objects offered at the shrines of the Sacred Animal Necropolis, and gives us a glimpse of just how popular these cults were. Also, the methods used in the conservation of these bronzes are presented.