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Historical Travel Literature / Llen Teithio Hanesyddol, 1492-1914

 

 

South and Central America / America: De a Chanol

After the early voyages following Columbus in 1492, Munster’s work (1550) was just about the first German book to discuss America (his map includes much guess-work)!  The Honterus volume and map (1548) show’s Europe’s scanty knowledge of North America more clearly. Many ‘collected’ works of travel tales, such as Purchas and Esquemeling, became very popular, as more and more Europeans began reading the ‘wonderous tales’ of overseas travel to the ‘new world’.

Yn dilyn mordeithiau cynnar Columbus yn 1492, roedd llyfr Munster (1550) ymhlith y llyfrau Almaeneg cyntaf i grybwyll bodolaeth America (roedd wedi dychmygu neu ddyfalu  rhan o’i fap yn ei lyfr)!  Tra, ar y llaw arall, mae map Honterus (1548) yn dangos pa mor brin oedd eu gwybodaeth am ogledd America ar y pryd. Daeth nifer o ‘gasgliadau’ o deithiau (o fewn cloriau un llyfr)  yn boblogaidd iawn, er enghraifft Purchas ac Esquemeling, wrth i fwy a mwy o bobl Ewrop ddechrau darllen am y straeon hynod o dramor am y ‘byd newydd’.

Honterus, Johannes, Rudimentarum Cosmographicorum, 1548

 

De Solis, Antonio, Historia de la conquista de Mexico, poblacion y progresos de la America septentrional, conocida por el nombre de nueva Espana, [2 volumes 1783-1784]

Esquemeling, John, The history of the Bucaniers of America […], 1699

Honterus, Johannes, Rudimentarum Cosmographicorum, 1548

Munster, Sebastian, Cosmographiae universalis […], 1550

Raleigh, Walter, Sir Walter Raleigh, his Apology for Guiana […], 1650

Purchas, Samuel, Purchas his pilgrimage, or Relations of the world and the religions observed in all ages and places discovered, from the creation unto this present.  In foure parts, this first contayneth a theological and geographical historie of Asia, Africa and America with the ilands adjacent [...], 1617

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Asia

Travel across Asia from Europe had been profitable (when safe) since before Marco Polo. Soldiers and traders were the first to open up new frontiers, and Russians colonized lands right across Siberia to the Pacific Ocean. China and India proved particularly attractive, and it in turn led to many religious missionaries moving into these lands. One traveller, Robert Knox a sea captain, was amongst many who were held captive, he escaped after nineteen years and wrote a major work about Ceylon from his period in captivity there.

Roedd teithio ar draws Asia wedi bod yn broffidiol (pan oedd yn ddiogel) ers cyn Marco Polo. Milwyr a masnachwyr oedd y cyntaf i agor y tiroedd newydd, a’r Rwsiaid yn coloneiddio Siberia, hyd at y Môr Tawel. Tsieina ac India oedd yn ddeniadol iawn, yn enwedig i genhadon Cristnogol yn y tiroedd newydd hyn. Roedd un teithiwr, Robert Knox, capten llong, ymhlith nifer a ddalwyd yn gaeth yn Ceylon am bedair blynedd ar bymtheg, nes iddo ddianc, ac wedyn ysgrifennu llyfr am y wlad a’i harferion.

Herbert, Thomas, Some yeares travels into divers parts of Africa and Asia […], 1638

 

Foster, A., Yn nyffryn yr Yangtse, cyf. L. Williams (Llundain, Cymdeithas Genhadol Llundain), 1899

Wilbraham, Richard, Travels in the Trans-Caucasian provinces of Russia, and along the southern shore of the lakes of Van and Urumiah, in the autumn and winter of 1837 / By Captain Richard Wilbraham, 1839

Hanway, Jonas, A historical account of the British trade over the Caspian Sea; with a journal of travels from London through Russia into Persia, 1753

Fryer, John, A New Account of East India and Persia […], 1698

Staehlin, J. von, An account of the new northern archipelago lately discovered by the Russians in the seas of Kamtschatka and Anadir […], 1774

Knox, Robert, Historical relation of the island of Ceylon [...], 1681

Herbert, Thomas, Some yeares travels into divers parts of Africa and Asia […], 1638

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Middle East / Y Dwyrain Canol

The Middle East has been a world crossroads since pre-history. Following conquests by Arab Muslims from the 7th century onwards, and later Ottoman Turks, an empire was formed whose influence lasted for a thousand years. This opened up trade routes, religious pilgrimages, and educational centres that attracted people in their thousands every year to travel its roads and sea routes. Europeans revived their interests from the period of Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798; and Burckhardt and Niebuhr were two of the most adventurous, (Burckhardt reaching Mecca in disguise in 1814, and was responsible for discovering the ruins of Petra also).

Mae’r Dwyrain Canol wedi bod yn groesffordd i’r byd ers cynhanes.  Yn dilyn buddugoliaethau gan y Mwslemiaid Arabaidd o’r 7fed ganrif ymlaen, ac wedyn y Turciaid Ottoman, ffurfwyd ymerodraeth a pharodd am fil o flynyddoedd. Agorwyd heolydd masnach newydd, pererindodau crefyddol, a chanolfannau dysg, a ddenodd miloedd o bobl bob blwyddyn ar deithiau ar hyd a lled y rhanbarth. Ail-enwyd diddordeb Ewrop yn y rhanbarth o gyfnod goresgyniad yr Aifft gan Napoleon yn 1798, gyda theithwyr fel Burckhardt a Niebuhr ymhlith y mwyaf anturus (cyrhaeddodd Burckhardt Mecca mewn gwisg Mwslim yn 1814, ac fe hefyd oedd yn gyfrifol am ddarganfod olion Petra ar y ffordd).

Roberts, D., The Holy Lands [...] Egypt and Nubia (six volumes), 1842 - 1849

 

Roberts, D., The Holy Lands [...] Egypt and Nubia (six volumes), 1842 - 1849

Sandys, George, A relation of a journey begun an. Dom. 1610. Foure bookes containing a description of the Turkish Empire, of Aegypt, of the Holy Land, of the remote parts of Italy, and Islands [...] [3rd ed.], 1627

Burckhardt, John Lewis, Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabys, collected during his travels in the East, 1831

Niebuhr, Carsten, Voyage en Arabie […], 1776

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Africa / Affrica

Northern Africa had been a trade route since before Roman times, but the interior was unknown territory to Europeans until explorations in the 18th century began. Later 19th century colonization by Europeans sent a wave of traders and explorers and adventurers across the continent. Many, like Stanley, fighting their way to their destinations (but his travel books sold over 100,000 copies). Once again, missionaries followed in their footsteps and left accounts of their travels also.

Roedd llwybrau masnach yn bodoli yng Ngogledd Affrica ers cyn cyfnod y Rhufeiniaid, ond nid oedd tirlun canol Affrica’n hysbys i bobl Ewrop nes i’r darganfyddiadau ddechrau yn y 18fed ganrif. Yn dilyn y coloneiddio gan Ewrop yn y 19eg ganrif  gwasgarodd masnachwyr ac anturiaethwyr newydd ar draws y cyfandir. Roedd rhai, fel Stanley yn barod i ddefnyddio arfau i gyrraedd ei nod (er y gwerthodd ei lyfrau dros 100,000 o gopïau). Eto, yn sgil hyn oll, daeth y cenhadon crefyddol, gyda sawl un yn ysgrifennu llyfrau yn seiliedig ar eu teithiau.

Moore, Francis, Travels into the inland parts of Africa […], 1738

 

Ogilby, John, Africa, being an accurate description […], 1670

Jeffreys, Keturah, The widowed missionary's journal: containing some account of Madagascar, and also, a narrative of the missionary career of the Rev. J. Jeffreys, who died on a passage from Madagascar to the Isle of France, July 4, 1825, aged 31 years / by Keturah Jeffreys, 1827

Bruce, James of Kinnaird, Travels to discover the source of the Nile in the years 1768-1773 […], 1775

Stanley, H. M., In darkest Africa [...], 1890

Moore, Francis, Travels into the inland parts of Africa […], 1738

Griffiths, William, Anturiaethau Cymro yn Affrica, 1912

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Polar Regions / Pegynau’r Gogledd a De

Polar exploration came last, after all the other continents had been mapped. Early attempts to find a North West Passage over Canada did not succeed until the 19th century, but ships were testing the limits of sailing into the ice flows from the 18th century. Later in the 19th century people like Nansen reached the magnetic North Pole, and Shackleton’s crew came close to the South Pole, before Peary and Amundsen completed the ventures in the 20th century.

Daeth fforiadau i Pegynau’r byd dim ond ar ôl i gyfandiroedd eraill gael eu mapio.  Serch y  fforiadau cynnar  i ddarganfod  ffordd i Asia i’r gogledd o Ganada, ni lwyddodd llongau ar hyd y llwybr hwnnw tan y 19eg ganrif. Yn hwyrach yn y 19eg ganrif gyraeddodd pobl fel Nansen  pegwn magnetic y gogledd, ac fe ddaeth criw Shackleton yn agos at begwn y de, cyn i Peary ac Amundsen gyblhau’r nod nes ymlaen yn gynnar yn y 20fed ganrif.

Shackleton, E., Heart of the Antarctic [...], 1909

 

Back, George, Sir, Narrative of an expedition in H. M. S. Terror: undertaken with a view to geographical discovery on the Arctic shores, in the years 1836-7, 1838

Nansen, Fridtjof, In Nacht und Eis: die norwegische Polar expedition 1893-1896 / von Fridtjof Nansen; mit einem Beitrag von Kapitain Sverdruy, 1897

Phipps, Constantine John, A voyage towards the North Pole undertaken by His Majesty's command, 1773, 1774

Shackleton, E., Heart of the Antarctic [...], 1909

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The Pacific / Y Môr Tawel

Although Magellan’s ships were the first to circumnavigate the globe, and cross the Pacific in 1519-1522, the South Seas were only explored in detail from the late 18th century. The arduous nature and length of these voyages meant they needed to be supported by organisations or governments, and the voyage by Captain Cook in the late 1770s began to open up the Pacific to Europeans. Between the publication of Shelvocke’s work (1726 ed.), and that of La Peyrouse (1798 ed.) one can see the new discoveries made along the Australian coastline (named New Holland by the first Dutch explorers in that region).

Er i longau Magellan hwylio o gwmpas y byd ac ar draws y Môr Tawel am y tro cyntaf yn 1519-1522, archwiliwyd  y moroedd deheuol hyn yn fanwl dim ond o’r 18fed ganrif ymlaen.  Roedd anawsterau mordeithiau hir fel hyn yn gofyn am gymorth sefydliadau neu lywodraethau, ac roedd y daith gan Capten Cook  yn ystod y 1770au yn ddechreuad ar agor y Môr Tawel i Ewrop. Rhwng cyhoeddi gwaith Shelvocke (1726), a gwaith La Peyrouse (1798), gweler darganfyddiadau newydd ar hyd arfordir Awstralia (a enwyd  yn  ‘ Holland Newydd ‘   gan yr Is-almaenwyr  cynnar yn y rhanbarth).

Cook, James, A new, genuine and complete history of the whole of Capt. Cook's voyages, undertaken and performed by Royal authority [...], 1779

 

Cook, James, A new, genuine and complete history of the whole of Capt. Cook's voyages, undertaken and performed by Royal authority [...], 1779

Hawkesworth, John, An account of the voyages undertaken by the order of his present majesty for making discoveries in the southern hemisphere, and successfully performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook, in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour: drawn up from the journals which were kept by the several commanders, and from the papers of Joseph Banks, esq; by John Hawkesworth, in three volumes, 1773

Peyrouse, M de la, A voyage round the world […], 1798

Churchill, A. (ed.), A collection of voyages and travels, some now first printed from original manuscripts, others now first published in English. In six volumes [3rd ed.], 1746

Shelvocke, George, A voyage round the world by way of the great South Sea: perform'd in the years 1719, 20, 21, 22, in the Speedwell of London, of 24 guns and 100 men, (under His Majesty's commission to cruize on the Spaniards in the late war with the Spanish crown) till she was cast away  on the island of Juan Fernandes, in May 1720; and afterwards continu'd in the Recovery, the Jesus Maria and Sacra Familia, &c / by Capt. George Shelvocke, 1726

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North America / Gogledd America

This was one of the first major European colonial settlements, won at the cost of millions of native American Indian lives through various causes. Over 12 million African slaves were transported to the Americas over three centuries, but narratives of their travels and ordeals are scarce. Two rare examples in Cardiff include a work from an ex-slave who settled in Cardiff, and Welsh translations of many travel narratives are a strong feature of our collections also.

Dyma un o’r gwladfeydd mawr cyntaf Ewrop, a enillwyd ar gost miliynau o fywydau brodorion America trwy  amryw o achosion. Alltudiwyd  dros 12 miliwn o gaethweision Affrica i America dros dair canrif, ond mae eu hanesion personol printiedig yn brin. Mae dwy enghraifft yng Nghaerdydd yn cynnwys un llyfryn gan gaethwas a fudodd i fyw yng Nghaerdydd, ac mae cyfieithiad Cymraeg o sawl daith brintiedig yn elfen gref yn ein casgliadau.

Weld, Isaac, Travels through the States of North America and the provinces of upper and lower Canada during the years 1795, 1796 and 1797 in two volumes [3rd ed.], 1800

 

Weld, Isaac, Travels through the States of North America and the provinces of upper and lower Canada during the years 1795, 1796 and 1797 in two volumes [3rd ed.], 1800

[A narrative of the most remarkable particulars in the life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, an African prince], 1779

Pellham, Edward, Gwyrthiol Gadwraeth a Gwaredigaeth Wyth o Saeson [The miraculous preservation & deliverance of eight Englishmen] [...] Greenland, 1819

Hall, W. A., Slavery in the United States of America : personal narrative of the sufferings and escape of William A. Hall, fugitive slave, now a resident in the town of Cardiff, 1862

Hennepin, Louis, Vast country in America [...], 1698

Major Evan Rowland Jones, The Emigrant’s Friend […] for persons intending to emigrate to the USA […], 1881

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