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300 Years of Children's Literature

Children’s education / Addysg plant

Children’s literature had its origin in educational texts. Early works focused on learning by rote: memorising mathematical, historical, biblical and geographical facts by repeated recitation. Later works put a stronger focus on ensuring children enjoyed learning. They encouraged discussion, were simplistic and conversational in tone, and aimed to amuse as well as educate.

Gwreiddiwyd llen plant mewn testunau addysgol. Prif nod y llyfrau cynnar oedd dysgu ar gof; cofio gan ail-adrodd ffeithiau hanes, mathemateg, daearyddiaeth a’r Beibl. Roedd pwyslais cryfach wedyn ar sicrhau mwynhad plant wrth ddysgu. Anogwyd trafodaeth, ac roedd llyfrau’n syml, ac yn anelu at ddiddanu yn ogystal ag addysgu.

 

Percival Leigh, The comic English Grammar; a new and facetious introduction to the English tongue (1840)

Arthur’s little geography (early 19th century)

Information here is presented in a question and answer format, with the answers designed to be memorised, rather than discussed.
Cyflëir gwybodaeth yma mewn dull cwestiwn ac ateb, gyda’r pwyslais ar gofio yn hytrach na thrafodaeth.

Charles Eves, School examiner, containing nearly 4000 exercises (1883)

A pocket book intended to quiz the schoolchild on information learned by rote, on the subjects of geography, English, Classical and biblical history, geography and arithmetic.
Bwriad y llyfr poced hwn oedd dysgu ar gof gan ofyn cwestiynau, ar bynciau megis daearyddiaeth, Saesneg, hanes y Beibl, a mathemateg.

Percival Leigh, The comic English Grammar; a new and facetious introduction to the English tongue (1840)

The frontispiece of this amusing approach to grammar illustrates the idea that children learn better when they are entertained.
Darlunnir wynebddarlun y llyfr difyr yma y syniad bod plant yn dysgu’n well pan y’u diddanir.

Mary Godolphin [Lucy Aiken], The Swiss family Robinson in words of one syllable (1869)

Mary Godolphin [Lucy Aiken], The Swiss family Robinson in words of one syllable (1869)

This well-loved children’s story is here illustrated, and retold in simple language for new readers.
Llyfr poblogaidd i blant gyda darluniadau, a ysgrifennir mewn iaith syml i ddarllenwyr ifanc.

Arthur Mee, The children’s encyclopaedia (1910)

This popular encyclopaedia aimed to make learning a wide range of subjects interesting and enjoyable for children, as well as developing their character and sense of duty.
Gwyddoniadur poblogaidd â’r amcan o ddenu plant at ddysgu am ystod eang o bynciau, yn ogystal â datblygu eu cymeriad a syniad o ddyletswydd.

John Amos Comenius, Orbis sensualium pictus [Comenius' Visible world. Or, A picture and nomenclature of all the chief things that are in the world], (1659)

Probably the most renowned and most widely circulated of school textbooks, it broke new ground by introducing ideas through images of objects rather than words.
Efallai’r mwyaf enwog a’r gwerthiant mwyaf o lyfrau ysgol, torrodd tir newydd gan gyflwyno syniadau trwy ddelweddau o wrthrychau yn hytrach na geiriau.

Nurse Rockababy’s easy reading, and pretty pictures (1852)

Simple stories printed in a large font, amply illustrated.
Straeon syml, argraffwyd mewn ffont mawr, a llawn darluniadau.


Roots of children’s literature / Gwreiddiau llen plant   

The earliest fictional literature aimed at children was intended to provide moral instruction, rather than amusement. Evangelical doctrine popular in the early Victorian period held that children were imbued with original sin, and required firm leadership towards morality. Many tales and fables were intended to frighten children into good behaviour, commonly through means of allegory.

Anelwyd y llen plant cynharaf at addysg foesol, yn hytrach na diddanwch. Athrawiaeth boblogaidd Fictoraidd oedd bod gan blant pechod gwreiddiol, ac roedd angen arweiniad cadarn moesol arnynt. Bwriad straeon moesol oedd codi ofn ar blant, i’w arwain at ymddygiad da, yn aml trwy alegori.

 

Mary Martha Sherwood, The infant’s progress, from the valley of destruction to everlasting glory (1825)

Sherwood’s writing was strongly evangelical; in her adaptation of John Bunyan’s Pilgrim's Progress, a child represents original sin incarnate.
Awdur efengylaidd cryf oedd Sherwood; yn ei haddasiad o Daith y Pererin gan Bunyan mae plentyn yn cynrychioli pechod gwreiddiol pur.

Mary Martha Sherwood, The infant’s progress, from the valley of destruction to everlasting glory (1825)

 

Arnaud Berquin, The blossoms of morality; intended for the amusement and instruction of young ladies and gentlemen (1801)

A collection of tales intended to teach ‘wisdom, virtue and morality’ to children.
Casgliad o straeon â’r bwriad o ddysgu ‘rhinweddau doethineb a moesoldeb’ i blant.

Rev. C. H. Ramsden, A manual for Christian schoolboys; containing short counsels and prayers for private use (1890)

An advice book on a number of subjects, including choice of reading material – frivolous fiction was cautioned against!
Llyfr cynghorol ar nifer o bynciau yn cynnwys detholiad o ddeunydd darllen – a rhybudd yn erbyn llyfrau gwacsaw!

Madame de Chatelain, Pussy’s road to ruin, or, Do as you are bid (early 19th century)

Madame de Chatelain, Pussy’s road to ruin, or, Do as you are bid (early 19th century)

Cautionary tale of a kitten led astray by an older cat.
Stori â rhybudd o gath fach yn cael ei gamarwain gan gath hyn.

The cabinet of useful arts and manufactures: designed for the perusal of young persons (1826)

Illustrated books of trades were intended to guide children choosing apprenticeships.
Llyfr darluniadol am grefftau â’r amcan o gynorthwyo plant i ddewis prentisiaeth.

Thomas Jones, Anrheg i blentyn, sef hanes cywir am ddychweliad grasol, bucheddau duwiol, a marwolaethau dedwyddol amryw blant ieuaingc (1816)

A translation of a 17th century English work (James Janeway’s ‘Token for children: being an exact account of the ... joyful deaths of several young children’), this is an exemplar of ‘death-bed literature’: accounts of the conversion of young children and their testimonies before their early deaths.
Cyfieithiad o waith Saesneg y 17g (‘Token for Children’, gan James Janeway), dyma enghreifft amlwg o ‘len gwely angau’, yn adrodd troedigaeth plant a’u tystiolaeth bersonol ar farw.

 

The Romantic cult of childhood / Delwedd Ramantaidd ar blentyndod

In the late 19th century, as a result of a declining culture of puritanism, children’s literature moved away from its instructive roots. Literary portrayals by Dickens and Eliot of innocent and redemptive children encouraged a new, sentimental approach. Children’s literature began to encompass more fiction and fantasy – genres previously frowned upon – and was often beautifully illustrated in colour.

Fel canlyniad i ddirywiad Piwritaniaeth ddiwedd y 19g, symudodd llen plant i ffwrdd o’r elfennu addysgol, tuag at ddelwedd newydd sentimental. Dechreuodd llen plant gynnwys mwy o ffuglen a  ffantasi, tuedd na chymeradwyid gynt – a darluniwyd cyfrolau mewn lliwiau hardd.

 

Kate Greenaway, Book of games (1900)

Greenaway’s books were hugely popular, and her sentimental illustrations of children wearing Regency-style pastels even created a new fashion trend.
Roedd llyfrau Greenaway yn hynod boblogaidd, a chrëwyd ffasiwn newydd a’i darluniadau sentimental o blant yn gwisgo dillad oes Regentaidd.

Kate Greenaway, Book of games (1900)

 

Heinrich Hoffman, Struwwelpeter: merry stories and funny pictures (1890)

Heinrich Hoffman, Struwwelpeter: merry stories and funny pictures (1890)

Written in parody of its predecessors, Hoffman takes the traditional morality tale to grotesquely violent extremes.
Sgrifennwyd yn barodi o’i rhagflaenwyr, mae Hoffman yn mynd â’r stori foesol i begynau, treisgar eithafol.

Walter Crane, Flora’s feast: a masque of flowers (1889)

Part of the Arts and Crafts movement, Walter Crane was a highly influential children’s author and illustrator, drawing inspiration from medieval illumination.
Roedd Walter Crane yn rhan o’r mudiad Celf a Chrefft, ac yn awdur a darlunydd llyfrau blant, a thannwyd ei ddychymyg gan ddarluniadau’r oesoedd canol.

 

Gendered texts / Llyfrau plant a rhagfarn ‘rywiaethol’      

Children’s literature is often explicitly aimed at either boys or girls, often on the assumption that they do not have common interests. This practice serves to create artificial boundaries between children, and define norms of character and behaviour at an impressionable developmental stage. Even today, publishing companies are frequently criticised for gendered marketing.

Anelir llen plant yn aml naill ai at fechgyn neu at ferched, ar y rhagdybiaeth nad oes ganddynt ddiddordebau’n gyffredin. Mae hyn yn tueddu creu ffiniau ffug ymysg plant, ac mae’n cadarnhau safonau ymddygiad ar adeg ddylanwadol iddynt. Hyd yn oed heddiw, bernir cyhoeddwyr am wahaniaethu ar sail rhyw yn eu marchnata.

Girl annual (1959)

Girl annual (1959)

A sister publication to the Eagle, Girl often features comic strips on career women – though these careers include: ‘Angela Air Hostess’, ‘At Work with Janet – Fashion Artist’, and ‘Belle of the Ballet’.
Chwaer gyhoeddiad i’r Eagle, sy’n cynnwys straeon cartŵn am yrfaoedd menywod, fel: ‘Angela , stiwardes awyr’; ‘Gweithio gyda Janet – dylunydd dillad’; ‘Belle y ballerina’.

Girl’s own paper (1885)

A mix of fiction and fact, including historical articles on famous women, the paper stressed the benefits of education, travel, and even employment for women.
Cymysgedd o ffaith a ffuglen, yn cynnwys erthyglau am fenywod enwog, pwysleisir y cylchgrawn budd addysg, teithio, a hyd yn oed cyflogaeth i fenywod.

Angela Brazil, The luckiest girl in the school (1916)

Angela Brazil, The luckiest girl in the school (1916)

One of the first British writers of modern schoolgirls' stories, Brazil wrote from the point of view of the pupils, and intended her books primarily for entertainment rather than moral instruction.
Un o’r cyntaf ym Mhrydain i sgrifennu straeon cyfoes i ferched, sgrifennodd Brazil o safbwynt y disgybl, ac anelwyd ei llyfrau’n bennaf at ddiddanu, nid i bregethu.

The boy’s treasury (late 19th century)

A collection of improving stories considered suitable for boys, including one addressing the question of what to be when one grows up.
Casgliad o foeswersi a ystyriwyd yn addas i fechgyn, yn cynnwys ystyriaethau am yrfaoedd i fechgyn nes ymlaen.

 

 

 

 

The boy’s own conjuring book: being a complete hand-book of parlour magic (1860)

The boy’s own conjuring book: being a complete hand-book of parlour magic (1860)

A book of magic tricks, number puzzles and chemistry experiments – the original ‘Dangerous book for boys!’
Llyfr triciau hud, posau, ac arbrofion cemeg – y llyfr ‘peryglus’ cyntaf i fechgyn!

Y Frythones: at wasanaeth merched a gwragedd Cymru (1879)

Sarah Jane Rees (Cranogwen) founded one of the first magazines for Welsh women, aimed at their secular and religious education.
Sefydlwyd un o’r cylchgronau cyntaf i ferched gan Sarah Jane Rees (Cranogwen), a anelwyd at eu haddysg grefyddol a secular.

 

Children’s fantasy literature / Llen Plant Ffantasi      

Children’s fantasy originated in Victorian fairy tales that were used as moral stories; its progression to include other genres such as real life, adventure and history in conjunction with magic was developed by authors such as E. Nesbit. By the mid-20th century authors were utilising British mythology for inspiration; looking to Arthurian legends, and in Wales, to tales from the Mabinogion.

Gwersi moesol oedd gwraidd ffantasi i blant mewn straeon tylwyth teg oes Fictoria; datblygwyd y ‘genre’ i gynnwys bywyd go iawn, anturiaethau, a hanes mewn cysylltiad â ‘hud’ gan awduron megis E. Nesbit. Erbyn y 20g roedd awduron yn defnyddio mytholeg Brydeinig am ysbrydoliaeth, megis chwedlau Arthur, ac yng Nghymru, y Mabinogi.

 

Edith Nesbit, The Phoenix and the carpet (1904, [1994 reprint])

Edith Nesbit, The Phoenix and the carpet (1904, [1994 reprint])  

Five children, a talking phoenix and a magic carpet that will go anywhere in the world, with three wishes a day.
Pump o blant, aderyn ffenics sy’n siarad, a charped hud i fynd i un man yn y byd, gyda thri dymuniad pob dydd.

Rudyard Kipling, Puck of Pook’s Hill (1906, [1951 reprint])

Short stories combining magical elements with both historical fantasy and contemporary fantasy, told by the elf, Puck.
Straeon byrion yn plethu elfennau hud gyda ffantasi hanesyddol a chyfoes, a adroddir gan ellyll, Puck.

C. S. Lewis, The lion, the witch and the wardrobe & The voyage of the Dawn Treader (Chronicles of Narnia, v. 2 & 5) (1950/1952, [2003/1965 reprint])

Children venture into the magical world of Narnia; a land full of talking animals and mythical creatures, such as dwarves and giants.
Antur a thaith gan blant i fyd hudol Narnia, gwlad llawn anifeiliaid sy’n siarad, a chreaduriaid dychmygol megis corachod a chewri.

C. S. Lewis, The voyage of the Dawn Treader (Chronicles of Narnia, v. 5) (1952, [1965 reprint])

Lloyd Alexander, The black cauldron (Chronicles of Prydain, v. 2) (1965, [1973 reprint])  

Set in Prydain, a land based on Welsh myth, culture and geography, Taran, an assistant pig-keeper ventures to become a hero.
Gosodwyd ym Mhrydain, dychmygol, gwlad sy’n seiliedig ar ddaearyddiaeth a diwylliant Cymru, mae Taran, ceidwad y moch, yn mentro i fod yn arwr.

Alan Garner, The owl service (1967, [2002 reprint])  

Based round the Blodeuwedd story in the Mabinogion, three teenagers find themselves re-enacting the tragic story which has echoed down the centuries.
Seiliwyd ar straeon Blodeuwedd yn y Mabinogi, mae tri yn eu harddegau’n yn ail-fyw hanes trasig o ganrifoedd cynt.

Susan Cooper, The grey king (The Dark is Rising, v. 4) (1975 [1986 reprint])
 
Utilising Arthurian mythology, this volume set in Wales introduces Bran, the Raven boy, who is later revealed to be Arthur’s son.
Gosodir y gyfrol yng Nghymru adeg Arthur, a chyflwynir y cymeriad Bran, a ddatgelir wedyn ei fod yn fab Arthur.

Nancy Bond, A string in the harp (1976)

A harp tuning key brings visions of the life of Taliesin to a young American boy living with his family near Aberystwyth.
Mae allwedd hud i diwnio telyn yn rhoi cipolwg ar fywyd Taliesin i lanc ifanc o America sy’n byw gyda'i deulu ger Aberystwyth.

Jenny Nimmo, The snow spider & Emlyn’s moon (The magician trilogy, v. 1 & 2) (1986 [1991 reprint])  

Inspired by the Mabinogion and Welsh myth, the books feature Gwyn, a young boy on a quest to see if he has inherited magic from his Celtic ancestor Gwydion.
Ysbrydolwyd gan y Mabinogi a chwedlau Cymru, mae’r llyfr yn son am Gwyn, bachgen ifanc ar bererindod i weld a ydy wedi etifeddu doniau hud o’i hynafiad, Gwydion.


Translating children’s literature: Wales and beyond / Cyfieithu llen plant: Cymru a thu hwnt          

In Wales, as elsewhere, the earliest literature aimed at children was intended to provide religious instruction. This persisted longer in Wales: by the early 19th century, while English readers had more choice of stories, Welsh authors were still producing translations of 17th century Puritanical works. During the 19th century, translations of classic children’s stories became available. In the 20th century, Welsh authors began producing more original work, some of which was itself translated into other languages. Today, translation is either done still for ideological reasons (religious or political), or because a book is popular or well-established in its own language.

Fel ym mhob man, anelwyd y llyfrau cynharaf i blant yng Nghymru at addysg grefyddol. Erbyn y 19g gynnar tra roedd gan ddarllenwyr Saesneg mwy o ddewis, parhaodd awduron Cymraeg i gynhyrchu cyfieithiadau o lyfrau Pwritanaidd o’r 17g., ond ymddangosodd cyfieithiadau penodol o glasuron i blant yn ystod y 19g. Dechreuodd awduron Cymraeg ysgrifennu gwaith mwy gwreiddiol yn yr 20g, a chyfieithwyd rhai ohonynt i ieithoedd eraill. Heddiw, cyhoeddir cyfieithiadau am resymau crefyddol neu wleidyddol, neu oherwydd bod llyfr yn boblogaidd yn ei iaith ei hun.

 

Theophilus Evans (tr.), Llwybr hyffordd y plentyn bach i fywyd tragwyddol (1750)

This tract appeared in English at least as early as 1725 as ‘The heavenly messenger, or, the child’s plain pathway to eternal life’. The names in the story appear to be allegorical (the dying child is called Benjamin Worthy).
Tract a ymddangosodd mor gynnar â 1725 yn Saesneg, ‘The Heavenly Messenger…’. Mae enwau yn y stori yn ymddangos yn rhai alegoriol (Benjamin Worthy yw enw'r plentyn sy’n marw)

Harriet Beecher Stowe, Caban f’ewyrth Twm (1853)

Harriet Beecher Stowe, Caban f’ewyrth Twm (1853)

One of several different Welsh translations of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the first being available within two years of the novel’s original publication. Hugely influential in highlighting slavery and encouraging anti-slavery sentiment in Wales.
Un o nifer o gyfieithiadau Cymraeg o ‘Gaban f’ewyrth Twm’, a ymddangosodd o fewn dwy flynedd o gyhoeddi’r argraffiad cyntaf gwreiddiol, ac roedd yn hynod o ddylanwadol yn amlygu caethwasiaeth.

Christoph von Schmid, Y fasgedaid flodau (ca. 1880)

Translation of ‘Das Blumenkörbchen’, a sentimental story with a Christian message first translated into Welsh in 1861. The coloured illustrations make this more attractive, but this is still a morality tale.
Cyfieithiad 1861 o ‘Das Blum’, hanes Cristnogol sentimental. Er yn hanes ‘moesol’ mae’r lluniau lliw yn ei gwneud yn fwy deniadol.

Chwedl Llyn y Fan (1917)

With illustrations by Margaret Lindsay Williams. This is a translation into Welsh of an English version of a Welsh legend. Welsh subjects were at last beginning to appear in children’s literature.
Gyda darluniadau gan Margaret Lindsay Williams, dyma gyfieithiad Cymraeg o’r Saesneg, o chwedl Gymreig, yn awgrymu bod deunydd Cymreig yn dechrau ymddangos mewn llen plant.

E. Morgan Humphreys, Y llaw gudd (1924); An lámh fholuighthe (1947)

One of the first authors to write adventure stories for boys in Welsh. ‘Y llaw gudd’ is also one of the first detective stories in Welsh. Translated into Irish in 1947.
Un o’r awduron cyntaf i ysgrifennu straeon antur yn  Gymraeg, ac un o’r straeon ‘ditectif’ cyntaf yn Gymraeg. Cyfieithwyd i’r Wyddeleg yn 1947.

Tove Jansson, Dewin ym Mwmin-gwm (1975)

Many favourite children’s books of the twentieth century have crossed borders through translation.

  • Erich Kästner, Emil and the detectives (1970). Originally published in German, 1929 – the only pre-war book of Kästner’s to escape Nazi censorship / Yr unig lyfr gan Kästner i osgoi’r sensor Natsiaidd, cyhoeddwyd yn Almaeneg yn 1929.
  • Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Y tywysog bach (1975, reprinted 2007). Originally published in French, 1943, and said to be the most translated book in the French language / Dywedir mai dyma’r llyfr Ffrangeg a’r mwyaf o gyfieithiadau erioed.
  • Tove Jansson, Dewin ym Mwmin-gwm (1975). One of the popular Moomintroll books originally published in Swedish in Finland, 1948 / Llyfr poblogaidd cyfres Moomintrol, cyhoeddwyd yn gyntaf yn Swedeg, yn y Ffindir, 1948.
  • Maurice Sendak, Yng ngwlad y pethau gwyllt (1988)). Classic children’s picture book originally published in English exactly fifty years ago, 1963 / Llyfr poblogaidd i blant, cyhoeddwyd yn Saesneg yn union hanner can mlynedd yn ôl, 1963.
  • J. K. Rowling, Harri Potter a maen yr athronydd (2003). Originally published in English in 1997, and translated into Welsh early as the Harry Potter books became popular / Cyhoeddwyd yn wreiddiol yn 1997, a chyfieithwyd yn fuan wedyn wrth i’w boblogrwydd dyfu.
  • Lewis Carroll, Eachtraí Eilíse i dTír na nIontas (2007). New Irish translation of Alice’s adventures in Wonderland (1865), with the original John Tenniel illustrations / Cyfieithiad newydd i’r Wyddeleg o ‘Anturiaethau Alys yng ngwlad hud’ (1865), gyda darluniadau gwreiddiol gan Tenniel.
  • The stuck-up kitty (1979); The beautiful dreamer (1979). Examples of the output of the Foreign Languages Press in Peking, which has close associations with the Chinese Government. Books for all ages are translated or produced in foreign languages for circulation in other countries / Enghreifftiau o’r ‘Foreign Press’ ym Mhecing, sydd â chysylltiadau agos â llywodraeth Tsieina. Cyfieithir llyfrau i bob oedran i’w gwerthu mewn gwledydd eraill.

 

The Children’s Mabinogion / Y Mabinogion i Blant

With Charlotte Guest’s translation in the 19th century, the tales of the Mabinogion crossed the boundary between adult and children’s literature. At the beginning, the adaptations had an educative role; but today the emphasis is on the supernatural and the fantastic, the dialogue between text and illustration being all-important.

Gyda chyfieithiad Charlotte Guest yn y 19g,  croesodd chwedlau’r Mabinogion y ffin o lên oedolion i lên plant. Ar y dechrau, nod addysgol oedd i’r addasiadau; ond erbyn heddiw mae’r pwyslais ar yr arallfydol a’r elfen ffantasïol, a’r cyswllt rhwng y testun a’r darlun yn  hollbwysig.

 

Charlotte Guest, Mabinogion: from the Llyfr Coch o Hergest and other Welsh Manuscripts (1849)

A translation aimed at a dual audience – both adults and children – illustrated by the wood-engraver Samuel Williams.
Cyfieithiad wedi ei anelu at gynulleidfa ddeuol – yn oedolion a phlant – gydag engrafiadau pren gan Samuel Williams.

J. M. Edwards, Mabinogion (1896)

J. M. Edwards, Mabinogion (1896)

An adaptation of the Four Branches by O. M. Edwards’s brother – note that Blodeuwedd is the focus of the illustration by Eirian E. Francis.
Addasiad o’r Pedair Cainc gan frawd O. M. Edwards – sylwer mai Blodeuwedd yw ffocws y darlun gan Eirian E. Francis.

Abel J. Jones a David R. Jones, Chwedlau Cymru Fu: The Child’s Mabinogion (1910)

An attempt to make the tales as simple as possible for the young reader.
Ymdrech i wneud y chwedlau mor syml â phosibl ar gyfer y darllenydd ifanc.

Ellen Evans, Mabinogion i’r Plant, rhif 1, Stori Pwyll Pendefig Dyfed; rhif 2, Branwen Ferch Llyr; rhif 3, Manawydan fab Llyr (1927)

The aim of the series is for children to read the stories.
Amcan y gyfres yw cael plant i ddarllen y storïau.

Wyn Griffith, The Adventures of Pryderi (1962)

Wyn Griffith, The Adventures of Pryderi (1962)

Drawing on the Four Branches, Pryderi is presented as the overarching hero
Gan dynnu ar y Pedair Cainc, cyflwynir Pryderi fel gwir arwr y chwedlau.

Gwyn Thomas, Y Mabinogi (1984)

An adaptation of the Four Branches beautifully illustrated by Margaret Jones.
Addasiad o’r Pedair Cainc gyda darluniau hudol Margaret Jones.

Mike Collins, Y Mabinogi (2002)

A graphic novel based on the film Otherworld produced by Cartŵn Cymru for S4C.
Nofel graffig wedi ei seilio ar y ffilm Y Mabinogi a gynhyrchwyd gan Cartŵn Cymru ar gyfer S4C.

Mererid Hopwood, Straeon o’r Mabinogi (2011)

The latest adaptation into Welsh of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi, illustrated by Brett Breckon.
Yr addasiad diweddaraf i’r Gymraeg o Bedair Cainc y Mabinogi ynghyd â darluniau gan Brett Breckon.