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Copyright FAQs

 

Do I need permission to copy for educational purposes?

The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (as amended) permits copying for instruction in some circumstances, but these are very limited. However, the Act encourages the setting up of licensing schemes which authorise more extensive copying for teaching purposes. Cardiff University subscribes to a number of these schemes, which cover various methods of copying.

Copyright Licences held by Cardiff University


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How much can I copy?

The limits for 'fair dealing', which includes reproduction for the purposes of non-commercial research or private study, are generally accepted to be:

  • 5% or one chapter from a book
  • 5% or one complete article from a journal issue or set of conference proceedings

Copying for teaching purposes is covered by Cardiff University's Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) Photocopying and Scanning Licence. This Licence permits the making of multiple copies from a wide range of printed material subject to the limits shown below.

  •  one whole chapter from a book
  • one whole article from a journal issue
  • a short story or poem (not exceeding 10 pages in length) from an anthology
  • one whole paper from a set of conference proceedings
  • one whole report of a single case from a volume of judicial proceedings
    or 5% of any of the above, whichever is the greater

 

For further details see the Information Services guides Copyright - Fair Dealing Guidelines (pdf file) and Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) Photocopying Licence (pdf file).

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Can photocopies be placed in the Library's Short Loan Collection?

Under the terms of the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) Photocopying and Scanning Licence held by Cardiff University, photocopies may be placed in the Short Loan Collection and may be copied by students provided they have been created or acquired in one of the following ways:

  • from books or journals already in stock and covered by the CLA Licence
  • from items which are 'copyright waived' (e.g. HMSO or US Government publications)
  • from the British Library's Copyright Cleared Service*
  • with the written permission of the copyright holder (this must be obtained before the photocopy is added to the collection).

*Please note: Photocopies obtained through the standard interlibrary loan service are supplied for the purposes of non-commercial research or private study only, and must not be placed in the Short Loan Collection. For further details see the Information Services guide Interlibrary Loans and Copyright (pdf file).

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Does copyright apply to examination papers?

Extracts from copyright works may be reproduced for examination purposes without prior permission. However, if the papers are subsequently made available to students for revision purposes, either in the library or on the web, this exception no longer applies, and permission should be obtained from the rights holder.

It is generally accepted that it is unnecessary to seek permission for short quotes (e.g. a single extract of no more than 400 words, or several extracts totalling no more than 800 words), provided full acknowledgement is given.

For further details see the Information Services guide Examination Papers and Copyright (pdf file).

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Am I allowed to include copyright material in my PhD thesis?

In certain circumstances, for example non-commercial research or private study, and examinations, copyright material may be reproduced without prior permission. As a thesis falls into both of these categories it is reasonable to assume that the candidate may include copyright material.

However, if the thesis is subsequently made available to other users (by being placed in the library or published in print or on the web), these exceptions no longer apply and permission should be obtained from the rights holder. It is generally accepted that it is unnecessary to seek permission for short quotes (e.g. a single extract of no more than 400 words), provided the source is fully acknowledged.

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Can I photocopy newspaper articles?

The Newspaper Licensing Agency (NLA) Licence held by Cardiff University permits the photocopying of articles for teaching and management purposes. The licence covers the major UK national daily and Sunday papers, plus some local papers, including the Western Mail and South Wales Echo. The licence does not cover the reproduction of photographs or advertisements.

Please note: The licence currently held by the University permits ad hoc copying - the making of occasional copies of particular interest. The NLA also offers an extended licence which permits the making of copies on a regular basis, such as for a current awareness service. In order to ensure that the University holds the correct licence it is essential that you notify the Legal Compliance Team should you set up such a service.

For further details see the Information Services guide Newspapers and Copyright (pdf file).

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How much may I photocopy from a map?

For the purposes of non-commercial research or private study, a single extract not exceeding A4 size may be reproduced from a map. In addition, Cardiff University holds an Ordnance Survey (OS) Licence which permits staff and students to reproduce extracts from printed Ordnance Survey maps for educational purposes. The licence does not cover maps from other sources.

Copying under the licence must be for teaching, non-commercial research or examination purposes only. The licence does not permit the reproduction of OS maps for consultancy or commercial purposes, or the scanning of paper OS maps.

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Are there special provisions for Parliamentary and Crown copyright material?

Following a government review of Crown copyright in 1998, it was decided that in the interests of more transparent and open government, the copyright in certain categories of officially published material would be waived.

This means that although copyright is asserted, users are permitted to copy or publish the material in any medium without having to seek formal permission, provided that the material is reproduced accurately and not in a misleading context, and the source is acknowledged.

Information about which categories of material are subject to a waiver is given in a series of guidance notes, which are available on the HMSO website.

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Can I make 35mm slides from copyright material?

A single slide or transparency may be made for the purposes of non-commercial research or private study, but copying for teaching purposes requires a licence. The Design and Artists Copyright Society (DACS) Licence held by Cardiff University permits the reproduction of artistic works onto slides, acetates and transparencies for educational purposes.

For further details see the Information Services guide Slides and Copyright (pdf file).

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Am I allowed to record a television or radio programme for teaching purposes?

Cardiff University holds two licences that permit the recording of television and radio broadcasts, and the copying of such recordings for educational purposes.

The Open University (OU) Licence permits the recording of Open University television programmes, and the Educational Recording Agency (ERA) Licence permits the recording of broadcasts by UK terrestrial channels.

For further details see the Information Services guide Recordings and Copyright (pdf file).

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The copyright statement on my pre-recorded videotape refers to 'domestic use only'. Can it be shown to a class?

The playing of commercially produced videos or DVDs is permitted for educational purposes, provided the audience consists only of University staff and/or students. Playing such recordings to an audience which includes members of the public, for example students' relatives, constitutes an infringement.

Copying from commercially produced videos or DVDs, including the capture of a single frame, requires permission from the copyright holder. The only exception to this applies to copying in the course of instruction in the making of films or soundtracks.

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Are computer programs subject to copyright?

Computer software and databases are protected by copyright law in the same way as more traditional forms of literature. In addition, the use of a computer program is usually subject to the terms of a separate Licence Agreement issued by the supplier of the software.

For further details see the Information Services guide Electronic Copyright: Software Licensing (pdf file).

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Can I download photographs from the Internet and put them on my own web page?

Downloading from the Internet for non-commercial research or private study may be justifiable under 'fair dealing' but republication, for example on a personal web page, will almost certainly constitute a copyright infringement, and as such will be potentially actionable by the rights holder.

Manipulation or adaptation of the data will also constitute an infringement, as the rights holder is protected under the legislation against alteration of his or her material. This will include both text and images and is particularly risky if republication is involved.

It is not advisable to place on your web page anything other than material created by yourself or for which you have obtained copyright permission.

For further details see the Information Services guide Electronic Copyright: Scanning and Downloading (pdf file).

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Am I allowed to scan extracts from recommended texts and put them in my Blackboard module?

The scanning of printed material into electronic form for the purposes of non-commercial research or private study may be regarded as 'fair dealing'. However, the material may not subsequently be republished, e.g. placed on a web page or included in teaching materials which are held in a Blackboard module or on a Departmental server.

Under the terms of the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) Photocopying and Scanning Licence held by Cardiff University designated persons may scan extracts from published material, within certain limits, for use in Blackboard - provided it is covered under the terms of this agreement. Currently the scanning element of this licence only permits copying from publications published in the UK and USA, provided they are not on the CLA excluded works list. Each scanned extract must include the CLA copyright notice and a detailed record of scanned extracts must be kept.

For further details see the Information Services guide Electronic Copyright: Scanning and Downloading (pdf file).

 

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I want to scan some diagrams for my PowerPoint presentation. Do I need permission?

Unlike 35mm slides and transparencies, which are covered by Cardiff University's DACS Licence, material included in a PowerPoint presentation is stored in electronic form, and as such is not covered by any licensing scheme.

Although the scanning of printed material into electronic form for the purposes of non-commercial research or private study may be regarded as 'fair dealing', this will not apply to material used for other purposes such as teaching or conference presentations.

Under the terms of the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) Photocopying and Scanning Licence held by Cardiff University designated persons may scan extracts from published material, within certain limits, for use in PowerPoint presentations, provided it is covered under the terms of this agreement. Currently the scanning element of this licence only permits copying from publications published in the UK and USA, provided they are not on the CLA excluded works list. Each scanned extract must include the CLA copyright notice and a detailed record of scanned extracts must be kept.

For further details see the Information Services guide Electronic Copyright: Scanning and Downloading (pdf file).

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How do I obtain permission to copy?

The Information Services Legal Compliance Team offers information and advice on copyright matters to all Schools and Divisions within the University.

For advice on how to obtain permission please email the team at copyright@cardiff.ac.uk.

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Where can I find out more about copyright?

Information Services' Legal Compliance Team, which is located at 40-41 Park Place, offers an information and advice service on copyright matters to Cardiff University staff and students.

For further details please email the team at copyright@cardiff.ac.uk or telephone 029 2087 9033.