Cardiff University

Cardiff School of History, Archaeology and Religion

 

HS1805: THE MILITARY ORDERS, 1100–1320

(2013–2014)

Tutor: Prof. Helen J. Nicholson

Email: Nicholsonhj@cardiff.ac.uk

Blackboard (http://learningcentral.cardiff.ac.uk): 13/14-HS1805 THE MILITARY ORDERS 1100-1320   

 

Class times: Thursday 13.10–15.00, room 4.43

 

Contents

On successful completion of the module a student will be able to: 2

How the module will be delivered. 2

How the module will be assessed. 3

Formative essays. 4

TIMETABLE.. 6

Assessed primary source essay. 8

ASSESSED ESSAYS. 10

SAMPLE EXAMINATION PAPER.. 12

BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 13

 

On successful completion of the module a student will be able to:

·      demonstrate a detailed knowledge and understanding of the Military Orders’ role in Medieval society

·      demonstrate a comprehensive critical understanding of a range of concept/perspectives/debates within the appropriate secondary literature

·      discuss with reference to the primary and secondary material selected topics such as the Military Orders’ role in the defence of the Holy Land, the Teutonic Order’s career in the Baltic, the Military Orders’ role in Spain, recruitment to the Military Orders, patronage of the Orders, the Military Orders’ services for secular rulers and the trial of the Temple, 1307–1312

·      demonstrate a detailed critical understanding of  certain primary sources and their significance

·      apply that understanding of the nature of primary sources in the assessment of historical interpretations and methodologies

·      elucidate and evaluate the significance of the relative merits and demerits of a range of interpretations relevant to particular themes and issues

·      present arguments clearly and concisely in one 1000-word assignment, one 2000-word assessed essay, in accordance with appropriate scholarly conventions, and in examination answer.

 

How the module will be delivered

A range of teaching methods will be used in each of the sessions of the course, comprising a combination of lectures, seminar discussion of major issues and workshops for the study of primary source material. The syllabus is divided into a series of major course themes, then sub-divided into principal topics for the study of each theme.

 

Lectures:

The aim of the lectures is to provide a brief introduction to a particular topic, establishing the salient features of major course themes, identifying key issues and providing historiographical guidance. The lectures aim to provide a basic framework for understanding and should be thought of as useful starting points for further discussion and individual study. Where appropriate, handouts and other materials may be distributed to reinforce the material discussed.

 

Seminar and Source Workshops:

The primary aim of the sessions will be to generate debate and discussion amongst course participants, focused in particular on primary source material. Seminars and source workshops for each of the course topics will provide an opportunity for students:

(a) to discuss topics or issues introduced by the lectures,

or (b) to discuss related themes, perhaps not directly addressed by the lectures, but drawing on ideas culled from those lectures.

and (c) to analyse different types of primary sources available, discussing the principal ways in which they can be used by historians.

 

Seminars and source workshops will provide the student with guidance on how to critically approach the various types of primary source material. Preparation for seminars and workshops will focus on specific items from the sources and related background reading, with students preparing answers to questions provided for each session. Both seminars and source workshops will provide an opportunity to discuss and debate the issues with fellow students. Classes will be divided into smaller groups for discussion purposes, with the results presented as part of an overall class debate at the end of the session.

 

There will be one session of 2 x 50 mins of teaching per week over two terms. Where the seminar is on a primary source, the session will begin with a ten-minute lecture on the primary source. There will then be a seminar of 40 minutes. A 10-minute break will be followed by a 50-minute lecture introducing the topic for the following week’s seminar. It is estimated that there will be a total of 30 classroom hours.

 

In addition, throughout the year the School hosts lectures and seminars on a range of fascinating and exciting topics given by visiting lecturers, scholars and postgraduates across a whole range of disciplines taught in SHARE. These normally take place at 5.15pm on weekdays (Tuesday, Wednesday Thursday), but some will also take place at lunchtimes. We encourage you to attend these events in addition to attending the lectures and seminars on this module. These research seminars are a unique part of the learning experience at University, and, although they may not always seem directly relevant to the courses you are taking, they will contribute to a broad knowledge of history and help develop your skills and approaches as historians. Look out for posters around the school throughout the year to see what’s on – I will also be advertising these to you in class.

 

 

Skills that will be practised and developed

  • communicate ideas and arguments effectively, whether in class discussion or in written form, in an accurate, succinct and lucid manner.
  • formulate and justify arguments and conclusions about a range of issues, and present appropriate supporting evidence
  • an ability to modify as well as to defend their own position.
  • an  ability to think critically and challenge assumptions
  • an ability to use a range of information technology resources to assist with information retrieval and assignment presentation.
  • time management skills and an ability to independently organise their own study methods and workload.
  • work effectively with others as part of a team or group in seminar or tutorial discussions.   

 

How the module will be assessed

Students will be assessed by means of a combination of one critical source analysis [20%], an assessed essay [30%] and an examination paper [50%].

 

Course assignments:

 

  1. Critical Source Analysis will contribute 20% of the final mark for the module. In this module it will comprise one gobbet commentary totalling 1,000 words.

 

  1. The Assessed Essay will contribute 30% of the final mark for the module. It is designed to give students the opportunity to demonstrate their ability to review evidence, draw appropriate conclusions from it and employ the formal conventions of scholarly presentation. It must be no longer than 2,000 words.

 

The Examination will take place during the second assessment period [May/June] and will consist of an unseen two-hour paper that will contribute the remaining 50% of the final mark for this module. Students must write 2 answers in total. There will be 10 questions. Candidates should show a knowledge of the relevant historiographical debates AND a knowledge of the historical ‘facts’ under discussion (e.g. an answer on the fall of Acre in 1291 should show a knowledge of the events before, at and during the fall of Acre as well as the historiographical debates surrounding the fall). See the sample examination paper in of this handbook.

 

The opportunity for reassessment in this module

The usual provisions for reassessment are made in this respect. Individual cases will be decided by the Examination Board of the History Board of Studies. Reassessment generally will take the form of a reassessment of the failed examination via a resit paper in the August Resit Examination Period.

 


 

Formative essays

 

There are no set formative essays this year, but if you wish to write a formative primary source essay or a formative essay, please choose a primary source extract from the list given below, or a question from the sample examination paper on p. 13.

 

Formative work should be handed in by Monday 11 November.

 

Primary source extracts for Formative Essay

 

IMPORTANT: follow the instructions for the Assessed Primary Source essay on p. 8!

 

(a) While he [Godfrey] was reigning magnificently, some [of the Christians] had decided not to return to the shadows of the world after suffering such dangers for God’s sake. On the advice of the princes of God’s army they vowed themselves to God's Temple under this rule: they would renounce the world, give up personal goods, free themselves to pursue purity, and lead a communal life wearing a poor habit, only using arms to defend the land against the attacks of the insurgent pagans when necessity demanded.

From Simon of St Bertin, ‘Annals’, c. 1135–37, in Document 1, ‘Contemporary reactions to the Foundation of the Military Order’, in the Photocopy Collection in the Library and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS1.htm.

See the reading for lecture 1 and seminar 1(available on Learning Central for this course); and look up the Abbey of St Bertin and find out something about its history.

 

(b) Now I shall tell you why they have the name ‘Templars’. When they left the Sepulchre, they had nowhere to stay. The king had three luxurious dwellings in the city of Jerusalem: one up high, at the Tower of David; and one down below, in front of the Tower of David; and the third in front of the Temple, the place where God was presented. This dwelling was called the Temple of Solomon; it was the most luxurious. They implored the king to lend them this dwelling until they could have one built. The king lent them the dwelling that is called the Temple of Solomon, from which they have the name Templars, because they dwell there. There they used to entertain the king when he had a crown-wearing ceremony in Jerusalem. Later they built a beautiful and luxurious dwelling next to it, which the Saracens demolished when they took the city, so that if the king wished to have his own dwelling they could dwell there. – Thus the Templars were from then on called ‘Templars’.

From The Chronicle of Ernoul and Bernard the Treasurer of Corbie Abbey, chapter 2. In Document 1: reading as for extract (a).

 

(c ) Often the things which are most humble are most useful. The foot touches the ground, but it carries the whole body. Don’t deceive yourselves: everyone receives the wages for their labour. The roofs of houses receive rain and hail and winds; but if there were no roofs, what would the painted panelling inside the house do?

            We are talking on this subject, brothers, because we have heard that some of you have been alarmed by certain indiscreet persons, as if your profession – in which you dedicate your life to bearing weapons against the enemies of the faith and of the peace and for the defence of Christians – as if that profession was illicit or harmful, a sin or an obstacle to greater progress!

From Hugh ‘the Sinner’: Letter to the Templars. In Document 1: reading as for extract (a)

 

(d)...Also, it is said that a good 7000 people fled to the house of the Templars [in Acre]. Because it was located in a strong part of the city, overlooking the sea shore, and was surrounded by good walls, they defended it for perhaps twelve days after the capture of the city [by the Muslims]. But when the Templars and the others who had fled there realised that they had no supplies and no hope of being supplied by human help, they made a virtue of necessity. With devoted prayer, and after confession, they committed their souls to Jesus Christ, rushed out strenuously on the Saracens and strongly threw down many of their adversaries. But at last they were all killed by the Saracens.

            From: ‘Cronica S. Petri Erfordiensis Moderna’, ed. O. Holder-Egger, Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores, 30, pp. 424–5; trans. HJN. In Document 3, ‘The Loss of Acre, 1291’, in the Photocopy Collection in the Library and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS3.htm.

See on Learning Central the reading for lecture and seminar 7. For a translation of the whole of this episode, see Learning Central> HS1805 The Military Orders, 1100–1320> Course Materials> The Chronicle of Erfurt: the Loss of Acre, 1291


 

TIMETABLE

Note: the first part of each weekly session will be a seminar based on the previous week’s reading. After a 10-minute break there will be a lecture introducing the following week’s subject. At the end of each part of the course there will be a group discussion between lecturer and students. Worksheets for the following week’s seminar will be handed out at the end of each week’s classes.

 

Week

Date

 

Title

First semester

Part One: The Military Orders as defenders of Christendom

Wk 1

 3 Oct

1

Introduction

2

Lecture 1 What was a Military Order and how did Military Orders begin?

Wk 2

10 Oct

1)

Seminar 1: The sources for the beginnings of the Military Orders

2)

Lecture 2: How did the Military Orders fit into the society from which they came?

Wk 3

17 Oct.

1)

Seminar 2: Pilgrims, knights and monks

2)

Lecture 3: Crusades to the Holy Land in the twelfth century

Wk 4

24 Oct.:

1)

Seminar 3: What did the military orders achieve in Latin East before 1200?

2)

Lecture 4: William of Tyre: historian of the Latin East

Wk 5

31 Oct.: 

1)

Seminar 4: William of Tyre and the Military Orders

2)

Lecture 5: The Military Orders in the Holy Land: 1200–1244

Wk 6

7 Nov.

 

Guided Study.

Wk 7

14 Nov.:

1)

Seminar 5: Philip of Novara and Matthew Paris 

2)

Lecture 6: The Military Orders in the Holy Land: 1250–1280

Wk 8

21 Nov.

1)

Seminar 6: The Military Orders in King Louis IX’s crusade of 1248–54

2)

Lecture 7: The loss of Acre, 1291 and the end of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem

Wk 9

28 Nov. 

1)

Seminar 7: How far were the Military Orders to blame for the decline of

the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the loss of Acre in 1291?

2)

Lecture 8: The Iberian Peninsula and the ‘reconquest’

Wk 10

5 Dec

1)

Seminar 8: The Military Orders in the Iberian Peninsula

2)

Lecture 9: The Teutonic Order and the Crusade to the Baltic

Wk 11

12 Dec.:

1)

Seminar 9: The Teutonic Order and the Crusade to the Baltic

2)

Final group discussion: what did the Military Orders contribute to the defence of Latin Christendom, 1100–1310, and how successful were they as military forces?

At the end of this session there will be a short introduction (lecture 10) to the next semester’s work.

Christmas vacation

Second semester

Part Two: Everyday life: the Military Orders at home

Wk 1

30 Jan.:

1)

Seminar 10: Why support the military orders? Relations with donors

2)

Lecture 11: Organisation and everyday life of religious orders

Wk 2

6 Feb.:

1)

Seminar 11: How religious was the Military Orders’ everyday life?

2)

Lecture 12:  Recruitment to religious orders.

Wk 3

13 Feb

1)

Seminar 12: Why join a military order?

2)

Lecture 13: Literature and art of the military orders

Wk 4

20 Feb.:

1)

Seminar 13: How did the Military Orders see themselves?

 

2) Final group discussion: How monastic were the Military Orders?

Wk 5

28 Feb

Lecturer at a conference in Munich

Part Three: Relations with the public in the West

Wk 6      6 Mar

(Reading week)

1)

 Seminar 14: The Military Orders in European Society: views.

2)

Lecture 15: The Military Orders in royal service.

Wk 7

13 Mar.

1)

Seminar 15: Were the Military Orders essential civil servants?

2)

Lecture 16: Economic development

Wk 8

20 Mar.

1)

Seminar 16: The Military Orders as economic forces.

2)

Lecture 17: The Hospitallers and Teutonic Order after 1291.

Wk 9

27 Mar.

Lecture at a conference in the USA

Wk 10

3 Apr.:

1)

Seminar 17:  Had the Military Orders outlived their usefulness by 1300?

2)

Lecture 18: The Trial of the Templars, 1307–12.

Wk 11

10 Apr.

1)

Seminar 18: The Trial of the Templars.

2)

Final group discussion: What did the Military Orders achieve?

Easter vacation

Wk 12

 

Guided Study.

 


Assessed primary source essay

 

 

Write on one extract from primary sources from the list overleaf. You should not write more than 1,000 words. Your essay should include full references and a bibliography, as for a conventional essay. This exercise should be submitted according to the normal conventions for assessed essays, on the date set down in the Final Year Handbook.

 

For advice on how to write your analysis, see ‘How to approach a primary source analysis’ under ‘Assignments’ on Learning Central for this course and the instructions in the Final Year Handbook. The following may also help:

·                     set the text in context: who was the writer? when was it written? Why was it written? What does the rest of the document say? Do any other documents that you have studied confirm this one or disagree with it? To answer this, you will have to do some detective work, put evidence together and make deductions.

·                     identify or explain any individuals, places, incidents or doctrines named;

·                     explain the significance of this extract for our understanding of the military orders.

 

In researching your answer, first look up the extract in the book or document given as the source of reference, and read the whole of the piece from which the extract is taken. If there is an introduction to that piece, read that too. This should give you the immediate context and will suggest further avenues of investigation.

 

Remember that for this module you must include references and a bibliography in your analysis. The bibliography does not count towards the word limit.

 

When writing up your answer:

Start with the detail of the extract: identify the writer, state when and where it was written, etc.
Then move on to discuss the general points which the extract raises.

NOTE: these extracts have been selected to offer an insight into some aspect of medieval history, such as the mind-set of the writer, points of view current at the time the extract was composed, prejudices and assumptions – but they rarely give objective facts. When discussing the extract, there is nothing to be gained by lamenting the lack of objective fact; this will only make you appear naïve. It’s far better to exploit the writer’s prejudices, e.g.: ‘This extract offers an insight into the belief system behind donations to the military orders’; or, for example: ‘When compared with the chronicle of William of Tyre, it is evident that this statement is at best only partially true. We must, then, ask why the writer makes this assertion. It’s possible that …’


 

Extracts for assessed primary source analysis

 

(a) I say: ‘You have a fair reason to hate’, because you do not hate humans but wickedness. I say: ‘You have a just reason to be greedy’, because it is justice to take from them what you carry off, because of their sin; and it is justly owed to you, in return for your labour. ‘The workman deserves his wages.’ For if we are not to muzzle the oxen who are treading out the grain, why should we deny labourers their wages? If a man is rewarded for speaking words which edify his neighbours, surely a man who lays down his life to preserve the lives of his neighbours should be paid?

Hugh ‘the Sinner’: Letter to the Templars (Document 1)

 

(b) When the Christians had conquered Jerusalem, many knights dedicated themselves to the temple of the Sepulchre; and later on many from all lands dedicated themselves to it. Good knights had dedicated themselves to it, so they consulted together among themselves and said, ‘We have left our lands and our loved ones, and have come here to raise up and exalt the law of God. So we rest here eating and drinking and spending, without doing any work. We do not perform any deed of arms either, although this country has need of that. We obey a priest, and so we do no labour of arms. Let us take advice, and with our prior’s permission we shall make one of us our master, who may lead us in battle when necessary’.

The chronicle of Ernoul and Bernard the Treasurer, chapter 2: ‘How the Templars came about’ (Document 1: see reading for class 1, especially on the authorship of this document)

 

(c) We and our brethren, of whom the greater number were sore stricken and wounded to death, resisted them as long as we could. God knows it. And as some of us were lying half-dead and helpless before our enemies, our serjeant and our body-servant came, and carried off ourselves, wounded almost to death, and our other brethren, at great risk of life and limb. And so we and a part of our brethren escaped, since it pleased God that it should be so.

Letter of John de Villiers, Master of the Hospital, describing the fall of Acre (Document 3: see reading for Class 7)

 

(d). For the appearance is that you see us having fine horses, and good equipment, and good food and drink, and fine robes, and thus it seems to you that you would be well at ease. But you do not know the harsh commandments which lie beneath; for it is a painful thing for you, who are your own master, to make yourself a serf to others. For with great difficulty will you ever do anything that you wish: for if you wish to be in the land this side of the sea, you will be sent to the other side; or if you wish to be in Acre, you will be sent to the land of Tripoli or Antioch, or Armenia; or you will be sent to Apulia, or Sicily, or Lombardy, or France, or Burgundy, or England, or to several other lands where we have houses and possessions.

The Rule of the Templars (See bibliography for Class 12)

 

(e) ...To prevent the damages and dangers which are said to have too frequently arisen from some people’s division and dissent, it seems very much expedient that the Templars and Hospitallers and all the other orders of knighthood who are bound by their profession to guard the Patrimony of the Crucified One with armed force should be combined into one unified order or union of religious observance as quickly as possible. And when they have been assessed on the true value of their revenues and profits they should be forced to maintain forever for the conquest and defence of the Holy Land as many armed warriors, as was said above, as can reasonably be supported from their means. And equally all should be forced to be humbly subject to and to obey the mandates of the duke, the captain of the Christian army, and also of the king of Jerusalem when the holy city has been won.

Proceedings of the Provincial council of Canterbury, Feb. 1292 (Document 10 and reading for class 17)

 


ASSESSED ESSAYS

 

  • Students should write an essay on one of the following topics. Essays should be no longer than 2000 words, not including footnotes and bibliography. All essays should have a cover sheet showing the student’s number, but not their name. Students should write their student number on their essays, but not their names. Essays should be handed in on one of the dates specified in the Final Year Handbook.
  • Students should submit ONE copy of their essay.  Students should note that the tutor’s mark is provisional and subject to revision by the external examiner.
  • Take care to acknowledge your sources! The use of other scholars’ words or ideas without proper acknowledgement will be severely penalised. For advice on how to avoid plagiarism and correct referencing, please refer to the Final Year Handbook. Detailed bibliographies for these questions are available on the Learning Central page for this course, at http://learningcentral.cardiff.ac.uk under 12/13-HS1805 THE MILITARY ORDERS 1100-1320, ‘Bibliography’.
  • You must not reproduce substantial amounts of material from your assessed essay in the examination.

 

1) Taking his work De laude novae militiae (‘In Praise of the New Knighthood’) as a whole, did Abbot Bernard of Clairvaux regard the Templars’ religious life or their military life as more important?

          Read a translation of the full text: Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, In Praise of the New Knighthood (there are various copies in the library). For additional reading, see the reading for lecture and seminar 1 on the beginnings of the Military Orders, especially Barber, New Knighthood, ch. 2, and the articles by Bulst-Thiele and Grabois.

 

2) ‘For there are some who say that if it had not been for them, the Franks would have lost Jerusalem and Palestine long ago’ (Richard of Poitou, monk of Cluny, writing on the Templars, c. 1153). Was this true of the Military Orders in the period 1120–1192?

See on Blackboard the bibliographies for lectures and seminars 3 and 4.

 

3) Why did the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem change from a pilgrim hospice to a military order?

For the beginnings of the Hospital, look at the reading for lecture and seminar 1, especially Alan Forey, ‘The Emergence of the Military Order in the Twelfth Century’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 36 (1985), 175-95, reprinted in his Military Orders and Crusades (Variorum, 1994), article I.

See also Alan Forey, ‘The Militarisation of the Hospital of St John,’ in his Military Orders and Crusades (Variorum, 1994), article IX. (If you have problems obtaining this article, see HJN.)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, Knights of St John in Jerusalem and Cyprus, pp. 32–85;

Michael Gervers, ‘Donations to the Hospitallers in England in the wake of the Second Crusade’, in The Second Crusade and the Cistercians, ed. Michael Gervers (New York, 1992), pp. 155–61;

Jonathan Phillips, ‘Archbishop Henry of Reims and the militarization of the Hospitallers’, in The Military Orders, vol. 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Helen Nicholson (Aldershot, 1998), pp. 83–8.

… and you may also wish to look at the Hospital’s reputation as a pilgrim hospice; see the reading for the next question.

 

4) What role did the Military Orders play in the care of pilgrims and the sick?

          See the reading for the seminar 2 on Hospitals and hospices, in general and on the military orders; and the reading for seminar 3 on the Hospital of St John’s hospital in Jerusalem (articles by B. Kedar and S. Edgington; writings of John of Würzburg and Theodoric).

 

5) ‘The Emperor was now disliked by all the people of Acre. He was the object of the Templars’ special disfavour’ (Philip of Novara, under 1229). Why did the Emperor Frederick II quarrel with the Templars during his crusade of 1228–29?

See the reading for lecture and seminar 5.

 

6) ‘Since it holds the Saracens back like a bridle, it gives freedom and security to the Christian faithful thereabouts from their customary attacks’ (Pope Gregory IX describing the Teutonic Orders’ new castle of Montfort in the Holy Land, 10 July 1230).  Is this a fair summary of the function of the military orders’ fortifications in the Latin East What were the functions of the Military Orders’ castles in the Latin East?

          See on Blackboard the bibliographies for seminars 3–7, especially pilgrim accounts and the additional material on castles.

 

7) Would you agree that Matthew Paris’s writings on the Military Orders are so distorted by his own prejudices that they are virtually useless to modern historians?

See the reading on Matthew for seminar 5, and seminar 15.

 

8) What did the Swordbrothers (The Knights of Christ of Livonia) achieve in Livonia?

For background, see the reading for lecture and seminar 9, especially the introduction to the second edition of The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, trans. Smith and Urban, and Appendix 1; the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia; the articles by Barbara Bombi and H. Cohn, and articles on Livonia in The Clash of Cultures on the Medieval Baltic Frontier, ed. Alan V. Murray.

 

9) How and why have the Teutonic Order’s actions in Prussia and Livonia been misrepresented by historians?

          See the reading for lecture and seminar 9 (including the film Alexander Nevsky), and also Sven Ekdahl, ‘Crusades and colonisation in the Baltic’, in Palgrave Advances in the Crusades, ed. Helen Nicholson (Basingstoke and New York, 2005), pp. 172–203; Sven Ekdahl, ‘The Battle of Tannenberg-Grunwald-Žalgiris (1410) as reflected in twentieth-century monuments’, in The Military Orders, vol. 3: History and Heritage, ed. Victor Mallia-Milanes (Aldershot, 2008), pp. 175–94: CR4701.M4.

 

10) What impact did criticism of the Military Orders have on the Orders’ activities before 1320?

          Consider the reading on William of Tyre (lecture and seminar 4), Philip of Novara and Matthew Paris (lecture and seminar 5), the reactions to the loss of Acre (lecture and seminars 7 and 17) and the list of reading on Learning Central, under ‘Course Documents’: ‘Forming images: literature and satire’. But you may also think more widely – a great deal of material from the course is relevant here.

 

Other questions are available; if you want to write on a particular topic, please ask the course tutor for a question.

 

The tutor can be contacted in room 5.45, by email at Nicholsonhj@cardiff.ac.uk, by telephone on Cardiff 2087 4250, or by post at the Cardiff School of History, Archaeology and Religion, Cardiff University, Humanities Building, Colum Drive, Cardiff, CF10 3EU.


 

SAMPLE EXAMINATION PAPER

CARDIFF UNIVERSITY

EXAMINATION PAPER

 

Academic year:                        2001–2002

Assessment period:      Spring

Module Code:              HS1805

Module Title:               THE MILITARY ORDERS

Duration:                     2 hours

 

Structure of Examination Paper:

There are 2 pages

This examination paper is divided into 2 sections.

There are 10 questions in total.

Equal marks are obtainable for all questions.

 

Students to be provided with:

One answer book.

 

Instructions to and information for students:

Answer two questions.

 

YOU WILL BE PENALISED IF THERE IS SUBSTANTIAL OVERLAP BETWEEN YOUR EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND MATERIAL ALREADY USED IN ASSESSED COURSEWORK

 

The use of dictionaries is not permitted in this examination.

Candidates should not repeat substantial amounts of the same material in two or more answers.

 

 

1. Was the creation of the Military Order a revolutionary response to extraordinary military needs in the Holy Land or was it a natural development of the society of the early twelfth century?

 

2. Would you agree that the inadequacies of the Military Orders were the decisive factor in the loss of the Holy Land in 1291?

 

3. Were the Military Orders in Spain anything more than tools of the kings in their wars of expansion?

 

4. Did the Teutonic Order achieve its aims in the Baltic and Prussia?

 

5. ‘The members of the Military Orders saw themselves more as monks than as warriors’. Do you agree?

 

6. What motivations could prompt a pious donation to a Military Order?

 

7. What drew European men and women in the period 1100–1320 to join a military order?

8. Was the patronage of kings and popes more of an asset or a liability for the Military Orders?

 

9. How important were the Military Orders’ economic and commercial activities to their operations on the frontiers of Christendom?

 

10. Is it sufficient to explain the destruction of the order of the Temple by Philip IV’s need for money?

 


BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

This bibliography contains the basic general reading and internet sites only. For individual seminars and essays, see the bibliographies at http://learningcentral.cardiff.ac.uk under 13/14-HS1805 THE MILITARY ORDERS 1100-1320, ‘Bibliography’. The full reading list is also available there under ‘Reading list’ and at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/HS1805course.htm

Use your initiative and search for other material using the various research media available (e.g. International Medieval Bibliography) and under CR47XX (the military religious orders).

And don’t try to read everything.

 

Some material is in two week loan, some is in short loan; some is in the folio section, some is in Scolar (basement of the Arts and Social Studies Library). Many of the journals in the individual seminar bibliographies (English Historical Review, Journal of Medieval History (from 1995), Speculum) are available not only in the ASSL but also entirely or in part online and can be freely accessed from within Cardiff University!

 

If you can’t find anything on a topic, ask the tutor.

For ordering recommended books, see: http://www.readinglists.co.uk/rsl/student/sviewlist.dfp?id=9943

 

ON-LINE RESOURCES:

 

ORB (The On-Line Reference Book for Medieval Studies) at:

http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/milindex.html

There is also a brief bibliography on the Military Orders at:

http://www.the-orb.net/bibliographies/milorder.html

There is some information on the Teutonic Order at:

http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/opsahl1.html

(and, ditto, /opsahl2.html and /opsahl3.html).

and at: http://www.deutscher-orden.at/

 

http://www.deremilitari.org/ – the society for medieval military history

 

There is a list of some medieval material available on the web at:

http://eudocs.lib.byu.edu/index.php/History_of_Medieval_%26_Renaissance_Europe:_Primary_Documents

And a translation of Church Council proceedings (taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, ed. Norman P. Tanner) at:

http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Councils/ecum11.htm – third Lateran Council, 1179

http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Councils/ecum12-2.htm– fourth Lateran Council, 1215

http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Councils/ecum13.htm – first council of Lyons, 1245

http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Councils/ecum14.htm – second council of Lyons, 1274

http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Councils/ecum15.htm – Council of Vienne, 1311–12

All of these involve Crusades and Military Orders.

 

For the excavations at the crusader castle of Jacob’s Ford (Vadum Jacob), see:

http://ateret.huji.ac.il/

 

For the Crusades and the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, see:

Kenneth M. Setton, ed., A History of the Crusades (6 vols) available online at:

http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/History/subcollections/HistCrusadesAbout.shtml

 

General Reading

Some general books

  1. Malcolm Barber, The Two Cities: Medieval Europe 1050–1320 (Routledge, 1992), CB351.B2 – background, lists of monarchs and popes; history of different countries and of the crusades.
  2. Bernard Hamilton, Religion in the Medieval West (Arnold, 1986), BR738.2.H2 – religious context.
  3. The Medieval World, ed. Peter Linehan and Janet L. Nelson (Routledge, 2003), CB351.M3

 

General Reading on the Military Orders

Most useful:

  1. Alan Forey, The Military Orders from the Twelfth to the early Fourteenth Centuries (Macmillan, 1992), CR4701.F6 This is out of print, but copies may be available from http://www.Abebooks.co.uk or http://www.Amazon.co.uk. There are also twelve copies in the short loan collection.
  2. Nicholas E. Morton, The Medieval Military Orders: 1120–1314 (Harlow, 2013), CR4701.M6

 

Additional reading

Conference proceedings

  1. Malcolm Barber, ed., The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith and Caring for the Sick (Aldershot, 1994), CR4701.M4 (The Proceedings of the first Clerkenwell conference on the Military Orders in 1992)
  2. Helen Nicholson, ed., The Military Orders, vol. 2: Welfare and Warfare (Aldershot, 1998). CR4701.M4. The proceedings of the second Clerkenwell conference on the Military Orders, held in 1996.
  3. Victor Mallia-Milanes, ed., The Military Orders, vol. 3: History and Heritage (Aldershot, 2008) CR4701.M4
  4. Judi Upton-Ward, ed., The Military Orders, vol. 4, On Land and by Sea (Aldershot, 2008), CR4701.M4
  5. Peter Edbury, ed., The Military Orders, vol. 5: Politics and Power (Farnham, 2012), CR4701.M4
  1. Zsolt Hunyadi and József Laszlovszky, The Crusades and the Military Orders: Expanding the Frontiers of Medieval Latin Christianity (Budapest, 2001), D160.C7
  2. La commanderie: institution des ordres militaires dans l’Occident médiéval, ed. Anthony Luttrell and Léon Pressouyre (Paris, 2002), Folio CR4701.C6
  3. Mendicants, Military Orders and Regionalism in Medieval Europe, ed. Jürgen Sarnowsky (Aldershot, 1999), CR4705.M3.
  4. Jochen Burgtorf and Helen J. Nicholson, eds, International Mobility in the Military Orders (Cardiff, 2006), CR4701.I6
  5. Helen J. Nicholson, On the Margins of Crusading: The Military Orders, the Papacy and the Christian world (Farnham, 2011): ebook

 

Festschriften (collected essays)

  1. Knighthoods of Christ: Essays on the History of the Crusades and the Knights Templar, ed. Norman Housley (Aldershot, Hants and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007), D160.K6
  2. The Hospitallers, the Mediterranean and Europe, Festschrift for Anthony Luttrell, ed. Karl Borchardt, Nikolas Jaspert and Helen J. Nicholson (Aldershot, 2007), CR4723.H6

 

There were three leading Military Orders: the Templars, the Hospitallers and the Teutonic Order. Historians have generally specialised in one or the other.

 

Malcolm Barber is a leading scholar on the history of the Templars. His books are:

  1. Malcolm Barber, The Trial of the Templars (Cambridge, 2006), CR4749.B2
  2. Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood: a History of the Order of the Temple (Cambridge, 1994), CR4743.B2
  3. Malcolm Barber, ed., Crusaders and Heretics, Twelfth to Fourteenth centuries (Variorum, 1995) Short Loan BR270.B2. A collection of his articles.
  4. The Templars: Selected Sources, trans.and annotated by Malcolm Barber and Keith Bate (Manchester, 2002), CR4743.T3. A collection of translated sources.
  5. Anthony Luttrell is an internationally respected scholar of the Hospitallers. He has published four volumes of articles, all shelved at CR4723.L8 . Most articles cover the period after 1291.

 

Jonathan Riley-Smith is an expert on the Hospitallers:

 

  1. Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Knights of St. John in Jerusalem and Cyprus (Macmillan, 1970). The Standard Work. CR4725.R4
  2. Jonathan Riley-Smith, Hospitallers: The History of the Order of St John (London, 1999), CR4723.R4
  3. Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Knights Hospitaller in the Levant, c.1070-1309 (Basingstoke, 2012), CR4723.R4

See also:

  1. Henry J. A. Sire, The Knights of Malta (Yale U.P., 1994), Folio CR4723.S4. ‘Popularist’, but provides general introduction and overview – and lots of pictures.

 

Idris Sterns is one of the few authors who writes in English on the Teutonic Order:

  1. Idris Sterns, ‘The Teutonic Knights in the Crusader States’, in Kenneth Setton, A History of the Crusades, vol. 5, or at: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/History-idx?type=article&did=History.CrusFive.i0021&id=History.CrusFive&isize=M
  2. Idris Sterns, ‘Crime and Punishment among the Teutonic Knights’, Speculum, 57 (1982); also available online from JSTOR.

William Urban is another:

  1. William Urban, The Teutonic Knights: a Military History (London, 2003), CR4765.U7
  2. William Urban, The Baltic Crusade (1975 and 1995) – the 1995 version is the second edition and therefore better, but the first edition is still a good read. DK511.L36.U7

 

Some historians, including Alan Forey (above) and your lecturer, have studied all three leading orders.

  1. Helen Nicholson, Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic knights: Images of the Military Orders, 1128–1291 (Leicester University Press, 1993), CR4701.N4
  2. Helen Nicholson, The Knights Hospitaller (Woodbridge, 2001), CR4723.N4.
  3. Helen Nicholson, The Knights Templar: A New History (Stroud, 2001), CR4743.N4. Reprinted (without the pictures) as A Brief History of the Knights Templar (Stroud, 2010), CR4743.N4

 

There has been little written on the other military religious orders. See, for example:

  1. David Marcombe, Leper Knights: The Order of St Lazarus of Jerusalem in England, 1150–1544 (Woodbridge, 2003), CR5037.M2
  2. Alan Forey, Military Orders and Crusades (Variorum, 1994), CR4701.F6: articles on the Order of Mountjoy and the Order of St Thomas of Acre

 

General Reading on the Crusades

 

Most useful:

  1. Hans E. Mayer, The Crusades, trans. John Gillingham, 2nd edn (Oxford,1988), D157.M2
  2. J. Riley-Smith, The Crusades: a Short History (London, 1987), D157.R4
  3. Kenneth Setton, ed., A History of the Crusades (Madison, 1958–89), 6 vols, D157.H4, and all at: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/History/subcollections/HistCrusadesAbout.shtml

 

Additional reading:

  1. Crusade and Settlement, ed. Peter W. Edbury (Cardiff, 1985), D157.S6
  2. Outremer: Studies in the History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer, ed. Benjamin Z. Kedar, Hans E. Mayer, R.C. Smail (Jerusalem, 1982), D182.O8
  3. Montjoie: Studies in Crusade History in Honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer, ed. Benjamin Z. Kedar, Jonathan Riley-Smith and Rudolf Hiestand (Aldershot and Brookfield, VT, 1997), D159.M6
  4. Autour de la Première Croisade, ed. Michel Balard (Paris, 1996), D157.S6.
  5. The Horns of Hattin, ed. B. Z. Kedar (Jerusalem and London, 1992), D157.H6
  6. Peter M. Holt, The Age of the Crusades: the Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517 (London, 1986), DS38.3.H6
  7. Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Atlas of the Crusades (London, 1991), Folio D157.A8.
  8. Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades (Oxford, 1995), D157.O9.
  9. R. C. Smail, Crusading Warfare, 1097–1193, 2nd edn. with intro. by Christopher Marshall (Cambridge, 1994), D157.S6
  10. Christopher Marshall, Warfare in the Latin East, 1192–1291 (Cambridge, 1992), D183.M2

 


 

PART ONE: DEFENDERS OF CHRISTENDOM

 

Weeks 1–2: What was a Military Order and how did Military Orders begin? (lecture and seminar 1)

 

Texts for study in class

Document 1, containing:

            Simon, bishop of Noyon, prologue of a donation to the Templars;

            Simon of St. Bertin, Annals;

            Anselm, bishop of Havelberg, ‘Dialogus’ to Pope Eugenius III;

Otto, Bishop of Friesing: Chronicon;

William of Tyre: ‘The Establishment of the Order of the Temple of Jerusalem’;

The Chronicle of Ernoul and Bernard the Treasurer, ch. 2: ‘How the Templars came

about’;

            Hugh ‘the Sinner’: ‘Letter to the Templars’.

Background reading about each author is included in the document.

This and the other documents are in Documents relating to the Military Orders, trans. H. Nicholson, in the Photocopy Collection in the Library, and at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS1.htm

 

Other primary sources to look at before the class:

There are some additional accounts of the beginnings of the Templars in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate: Michael the Syrian (no. 2, pp. 27–9), writing in the early 1190s, but confusing the Templars and Hospitallers; and Walter Map (second-hand, based on accounts he heard at the Third Lateran Council in 1179?, writing 1181–93), no. 3, pp. 29–30;

Guigo, prior of La Grande Chartreuse, writing to Hugh, master of the Temple, at

http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/guigues.html

 

Bernard of Clairvaux, ‘In praise of the New Knighthood’, photocopy collection; also in library as In praise of the new knighthood: a treatise on the Knights Templar and the holy places of Jerusalem, trans.  Conrad Greenia (Kalamazzo, MI; Coalville, UK, 2000), BR270.C5; also chapters 1–5 (of 13) are at http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/bernard.html and in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, no. 60, pp. 215–27.

Bernard of Clairvaux, The Letters of Bernard of Clairvaux, ed. & trans. Bruno Scott James (1998), letters nos 32, 216, 334, 408, 410, 426 (dealing with earlier supporters of the Templars, Bernard’s efforts on the Order’s behalf, and problems of brothers leaving, etc.) BX4700.B5.

 

Isaac of Stella, The Selected Works of Isaac of Stella, A Cistercian Voice from the Twelfth Century, ed. Dániel Deme (Aldershot, 2007), Sermon 48, pp. 131–5 (BX1756.176.S3). The section referring to an anonymous new military order is on p. 133, paragraphs 8–9. On Isaac of Stella, aka Isaac of Etoile, see also Benjamin Z. Kedar, Crusade and Mission: European Approaches Towards the Muslims (Princeton, 1984), pp. 104–12.

 

Peter the Venerable to Everard of Les Barres, in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, no. 61, pp. 227–30

 

‘Omne Datum Optimum’ (abridged) in L. and J. Riley-Smith, The Crusades: Idea and Reality, 1095–1274 (London, 1981), D157.C7: p. 93; also in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, no. 7, pp. 59–64; see also nos 8 and 9 for later privileges

 

William, archbishop of Tyre, A History of Deeds done beyond the Sea, trans. E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey (New York, 1943), D151.W4, vol. 2, pp. 239–49 (Also in Photocopy Collection under William of Tyre: Book 18) – for the foundation of the Hospitallers and their conflict with the patriarch of Jerusalem.

 

There is also information in The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (any edition) under the year 1128, and in the chronicle of Roger of Howden (translated as: The annals of Roger de Hoveden, comprising the history of England and of other countries of Europe from A.D. 732 to A.D.1201, trans. Henry T. Riley, vol.1: A.D. 732 to A.D. 1180; vol. 2: 1181 to 1201 (London: Bohn, 1853, repr. Llanerch Publishers, 1996–7), D113.R6: vol. 1, p. 221.

And on the Blackboard pages for this course, see ‘Translated Primary Sources from the Twelfth Century’ under ‘Course Documents’.

 

Secondary material

Most important:

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Origins of the Order of the Temple’, Studia Monastica, 12 (1970) (photocopy collection and in his Crusaders and Heretics)

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘The Emergence of the Military Order in the Twelfth Century’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 36 (1985), 175–95, and in his Military Orders and Crusades (Variorum, 1994), CR4701.F6, and in photocopy collection.

 

Additional reading

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Social Context of the Templars’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series 34 (1984), 27–46 and in his Crusaders and Heretics.

 

  1. Marcus Bull, ‘The Confraternity of La Sauve-Majeure: a Foreshadowing of the Military Order?’ chapter 34 in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber.

 

  1. Marie Luise Bulst-Thiele, ‘The influence of St. Bernard of Clairvaux on the Formation of the Order of Knights Templar’, in The Second Crusade and the Cistercians, ed. Michael Gervers (New York, 1991), D162.2.S3

 

  1. Damien Carraz, ‘Precursors and Imitators of the Military Orders: Religious Societies for Defending the Faith in the Medieval West (11th-13th c.)’, Viator. Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 41-2 (2010), 91–111

 

  1. Ephraim Emerton, ‘Altopascio-A Forgotten Order’, The American Historical Review, 29.1 (1923), 1-23

 

  1. Aryeh Grabois, ‘Militia and malitia: the Bernardine vision of Chivalry’, in The Second Crusade and the Cistercians, ed. Gervers.

 

  1. Luis García-Guijarro Ramos, ‘Ecclesiastical Reform and the Origins of the Military Orders: new perspectives on Hugh of Payns’ Letter’, in The Military Orders, vol. 4: On Land and By Sea, ed. Judi Upton-Ward (Aldershot, 2008), pp. 77–83. CR4701.M4

 

  1. Rudolf Hiestand, ‘The Military Orders and Papal Crusading Propaganda’, in The Military Orders, vol. 3: History and Heritage, ed. Victor Mallia-Milanes (Aldershot, 2008), pp. 155–65. CR4701.M4

 

  1. Elena Lourie, ‘The Confraternity of Belchite, the Ribat and the Temple’, Viator, 13 (1982), 159–176 and in her Crusade and Colonisation: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Medieval Aragon (Variorum, c1990), DP125.L6. A controversial theory, attacked by Alan Forey and Marcus Bull.

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Earliest Templars’, in Autour de la Première Croisade, ed. Michel Balard (Paris, 1996), D157.S6.

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Earliest Hospitallers’, in Monjoie, ed. Kedar, Riley-Smith and Hiestand.

 

  1. Helen J. Nicholson, ‘The changing face of the Templars: current trends in historiography’, History Compass, 8/7 (2010), 653–67. This article is at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1478-0542.2010.00691.x/full

 

  1. Denys Pringle, The churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: a corpus, 4 vols (Cambridge, 1993–2009), vol. 3, for the city of Jerusalem: look up the Aqsa mosque (pp. 417–33) to read about the building which became the Templars’ base. Folio NA5989.6.P7.

 

  1. William Purkis, Crusading spirituality in the Holy Land and Iberia, c.1095-c.1187 (Woodbridge, 2008), D161.2.P8,  discusses Bernard of Clairvaux and the Templars: use the index.

 

  1. A. Vauchez, ‘Lay People’s Sanctity in Western Europe’, in Images of Sainthood in Medieval Europe, ed. Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski and Timea Szell (Ithaca and London, 1991), pp. 21–32. BX4662.I6

 

  1. Christopher Walter, The Warrior Saints in Byzantine Art and Tradition (Aldershot, 2002), N8079.5.W2. In case you thought the idea of holy warriors was new in 1095 …

 

See also Barber, New Knighthood, chs. 1 and 2; Riley-Smith, Knights, on the origins of the Hospitallers; Nicholson, Templars, Hospitallers... chs 1–4 on reactions.

 

 

Weeks 2–3: How did the Military Orders fit into the society from which they came? Pilgrims, knights and monks (lecture and seminar 2)

 

For this seminar, the class will be divided into three groups to consider the military orders as protectors of pilgrims, as knights and as religious people living a life like monks.

 

Reading for the seminar

Pilgrims and hospitals

Pilgrims: what were pilgrims, and why did people go on pilgrimage?

  1. Richard W. Barber, Pilgrimages (Woodbridge, 1991), BL619.P5.B2

 

  1. Ronald C. Finucane, Miracles and pilgrims : popular beliefs in medieval England (London : Dent, 1977), BX2323.F4

 

  1. Jonathan Sumption, Pilgrimage: an Image of Mediaeval Religion (London : Faber, 1975), BX2323.S8

 

  1. Diana Webb, Medieval European Pilgrimage, c.700–c.1500 (Basingstoke, 2002), BX2323.W3

 

Hospitals and hospices in general: what were medieval hospitals like?

  1. Martha Carlin, ‘Medieval English Hospitals’, in The Hospital in History, ed. Lindsay Granshaw and Roy Porter (London and New York, 1989), RA964.H6
  2. Peregrine Horden, Hospitals and Healing from Antiquity to the Later Middle Ages (Aldershot, 2008), RA964.H6 – various articles on medieval hospitals, in Christendom and under Islam

 

  1. Elizabeth Prescott, The English Medieval Hospital, 1050–1640 (London, 1992), Senghenydd Library (Lifelong Learning), 725.51 P

 

  1. Miri Rubin, ‘Development and Change in English Hospitals, 1100–1500’, in The Hospital in History, ed. Granshaw and Porter, pp. 41–59

 

  1. P. H. Cullum, ‘St Leonard’s Hospital, York: the spatial and social analysis of an Augustinian Hospital’, in Advances in Monastic Archaeology, ed. Roberta Gilchrist and Harold Mytum (Oxford, 1993), pp.11–18, Folio DA655.A3

 

  1. Roger Price and Michael Ponsford, St Bartholomew’s Hospital, Bristol: The Excavation of a Medieval Hospital: 1976–8 (York, 1998), Folio DA690.B8.P7

 

The Military Orders: what role did the Military Orders play in the care of pilgrims and others?

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Charitable and Medical Activities of the Hospitallers and Templars’, in A History of Pastoral Care, ed. Gillian R. Evans (London, 2000), pp. 149–68. BV4011.H4

 

  1. Jessalynn Bird, ‘Medicine for Body and Soul: Jacques de Vitry’s Sermons to Hospitallers and their Patients’ and ‘Texts on Hospitals: Translation of Jacques de Vitry, Historia Occidentalis 29, and Edition of Jacques de Vitry’s Sermons to Hospitallers’ in Religion and Medicine in the Middle Ages, ed. Peter Biller and Joseph Ziegler (Woodbridge, 2001), BX1795.H4.R3

 

  1. J. Blair, ‘Saint Leonard’s Chapel, Clanfield’, Oxoniensia, 50 (1985), 209–14

 

  1. Sources in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, nos 27–30, pp. 126–30

 

  1. Bernhard Demel, ‘Welfare and Warfare in the Teutonic Order: A Survey’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 61–73

 

  1. Susan Edgington, ‘Medical Care in the Hospital of St John in Jerusalem’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 35–33.

 

  1. Susan Edgington, ‘Administrative Regulations for the Hospital of St John in Jerusalem dating from the 1180s’, Crusades, 4 (2005), 21–37

 

  1. Alan J. Forey, ‘The Charitable Activities of the Templars’, Viator, 34 (2003), 109–41. A problematic article, which will be considered during the lecture.

 

  1. Roberta Gilchrist, Contemplation and Action: the Other Monasticism (London, 1995), ch. 3 on the Military Orders; compare to ch. 2 on hospitals. 1 copy in short loan at BX2592.G4; one in Lifelong learning library.

 

  1. Rafaël Hyacinthe, ‘De Domo Sancti Lazari Milites Leprosi: Knighthood and leprosy in the Holy Land’, in The Medieval Hospital and Medical Practice, ed. Barbara S. Bowers (Aldershot, 2007), pp. 209–224. R141.M3

 

  1. Benjamin Z. Kedar, ‘A Twelfth-Century Description of the Jerusalem Hospital’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 3–13.

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Earliest Hospitallers’, in Monjoie, ed. Kedar, Riley-Smith and Hiestand.

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitallers in twelfth-century Constantinople’, in The Experience of Crusading, vol. 1: Western Approaches, ed. Marcus Bull and Norman Housley (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 225–32

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitallers’ Hospice of Santa Caterina at Venice: 1358–1451’, in his The Hospitallers in Cyprus, Rhodes, Greece and the West, 1291–1440 (London: Variorum, 1970), chapter  9

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitallers’ Medical Tradition: 1291–1530’, in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber, pp. 64–81; reprinted 1999 in his The Hospitaller State on Rhodes and its Western Provinces, 1306–1462 (Aldershot: Variorum, 1999), chapter 10

 

  1. Klaus Militzer, ‘The Role of Hospitals in the Teutonic Order’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 51–59.

 

  1. Piers D. Mitchell, Medicine in the Crusades: warfare, wounds, and the medieval surgeon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), D157.M4

 

  1. Piers D. Mitchell, ‘The infirmaries of the Order of the Temple in the Medieval Kingdom of Jerusalem’, in The Medieval Hospital and Medical Practice, ed. Barbara S. Bowers (Aldershot, 2007), pp. 225–234. R141.M3

 

  1. David Marcombe, Leper Knights, ch. 5

 

  1. T. S. Miller, ‘The Knights of St. John and the Hospitals of the Latin West’, Speculum, 53 (1978): also available online from JSTOR

 

  1. Helen Nicholson, ‘The Motivations of the Hospitallers and Templars in their Involvement in the Fourth Crusade and its Aftermath’ (Hill Monastic Manuscript Library Malta Study Center Lecture, 2003) online publication at: http://www.hmml.org/centers/malta/publications/lecture3.html (note references to both castles and hospitals)

 

  1. Helen Nicholson, ‘The Sisters’ House at Minwear, Pembrokeshire: analysis of the documentary and archaeological evidence’, Archaeologica Cambrensis, 151 (2002), 109–138. (A Salisbury Collection periodical.)

 

  1. R. B. Pugh, ‘The Knights Hospitallers as undertakers’, Speculum, (1981), 566–74: also available online from JSTOR

 

On the tradition of monastic hospitality in general see: Julie Kerr, Monastic Hospitality: The Benedictines in England, c. 1070–c.1250 (Boydell, 2007), BX2592.K3

 

Knights

Knightly ideals in the twelfth century: what did they believe in?

Document 2 ‘How William became a monk’ (in Documents relating to the Military Orders, trans. H. Nicholson, in the Photocopy Collection and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS2.htm) The same story is told in full (and in blank verse) in Guillaume d'Orange: four twelfth-century epics, trans. Joan M. Ferrante (New York, 1974), PQ1481.A3.F3 : pp. 281–307. See also the introduction, pp. 1–50, 58–60. Or you could look at: William, Count of Orange: four old French epics, ed. Glanville Price; intro. Lynette Muir; trans. Glanville Price, Lynette Muir and David Hoggan (London: Dent, 1975), PQ1481.A3.P7

  1. J. F. Benton, ‘Nostre Franceis n’unt talent de fuir: the Song of Roland and the Enculturation of a Warrior Class’, in his Culture, Power and Personality in Medieval France, ed. Thomas N. Bisson (London, 1991), DC33.2.B3. Also in the Photocopy Collection under Benton/Culture.

 

  1. Peter Coss, The Knight in Medieval England 1000–1400 (Stroud, 1993), DA185.C6, esp. chapters 1–3

 

  1. Maurice Keen, Chivalry (New Haven and London, 1984), CR4513.K3: esp. chs 1–4

 

  1. Colin Morris, ‘Equestris Ordo: Chivalry as a vocation in the twelfth century’, in Religious Motivation: Biographical and Sociological Problems for the Church Historian; papers read at the Sixteenth Summer Meeting and the Seventeenth Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History, 15 (1978), pp. 87–96 (shelved with Humanities periodicals under ‘Studies in Church History’).

 

  1. There is also useful material in the series of conference proceedings, Ideals and Practice of Medieval Knighthood, vols 1–4  ed. Christopher Harper-Bill and Ruth Harvey (Woodbridge, 1986–95), CR4513.I3, Medieval Knighthood, vol. 5, ed. Stephen Church and Ruth Harvey (Woodbridge, 1995),  CR4513.M3

 

Monks

  1. Documents: The Cistercian World: Monastic Writings of the Twelfth Century, ed. Pauline Matarasso (1993) pp.30–32 (The Vita Prima of St. Bernard of Clairvaux by William of St Thierry, I, vii, 26, 34, 35, 38), BX3402.A2.C2 – St. Bernard’s life at Clairvaux.

 

  1. The Rule of St. Benedict in Latin and English, ed. and trans. Abbot Justin McCann (London, 1952), BX3004.A4.F76; also in Section 3 of Owen Chadwick, Western Asceticism (London, 1958), BR53.L. The text of the Rule of St Benedict is also available via ORB (http://www.the-orb.net/encyclo.html) at http://www.osb.org/rb/text/toc.html#toc. The original monastic ideal.

 

  1. How did knights see this ideal? The Song of Roland, trans. Glyn Burgess (Harmondsworth, 1990), PQ1521.E5.B8, p. 89 laisse 141

 

  1. What did other clergy think? Walter Map, De Nugis Curialium, trans. M. R. James, C. N. L. Brooke and R. A. B. Mynors (Oxford, 1983), pp. 73–117. PA8380.

 

General sources on religious orders

  1. Janet Burton, Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain, 1000–1300 (Cambridge, 1994), BX2592.B8

 

  1. C. H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages (London, 1984 and 1994), BX2470.L2

 

The ‘Crisis of Monasticism’ and the new religious Orders

  1. Brenda Bolton, The Medieval Reformation (London, 1982), BR270.B6

 

  1. Norman Cantor, ‘The Crisis of Western Monasticism, 1050–1130’, American Historical Review, 66 (1960–1), 47–67; also available online from JSTOR

 

  1. Jean Leclercq, ‘The Monastic Crisis of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries’, in Cluniac Monasticism in the Central Middle Ages, ed. Noreen Hunt (London, 1971), BX3460.C5

 

  1. J. Van Engen, ‘The “Crisis of Cenobitism” Reconsidered’, Speculum, 61 (1986); also available online from JSTOR

 

  1. Katherine Allen Smith, ‘Saints in Shining Armor: Martial Asceticism and Masculine Models of Sanctity, ca. 1050–1250’, Speculum, 83 part 3 (2008), 572–602. A monastic response to the Crusades and the Military Orders?

 

 

Weeks 3–4: Military orders in the Holy Land in the twelfth century. What did the Military Orders achieve? (lecture and seminar 3).

 

Sources on the Holy Land in the twelfth century

See the general histories listed at the start of this bibliography, particularly Setton, A History of the Crusades : http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/History/subcollections/HistCrusadesAbout.shtml

 

1120s–1130s:

  1. Jonathan Phillips, ‘Hugh of Payns and the 1129 Damascus Crusade’, in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber.

 

  1. Jonathan Riley-Smith, ‘The Templars and Teutonic knights in Cilician Armenia’, in The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia, ed. Boase.

 

Second Crusade:

  1. Odo of Deuil, De profectione Ludovici VII in orientem: The Journey of Louis VII to the East,  trans. Virginia G. Berry (New York, 1948),  Esp. Book 7, pp. 123–143 on Templars during second crusade. D162.1.O3.

 

  1. John of Salisbury, Historia Pontificalis, ed. Marjorie Chibnall (Edinburgh, 1956; Oxford, 1986), B765.J41.H4. pp. 52–59, esp. p. 57.

 

  1. Roger of Howden’s chronicle, trans. as The annals of Roger de Hoveden, vol. 1, p. 250.

                       

  1. Alan Forey, ‘The Failure of the Siege of Damascus in 1148’, Journal of Medieval History, 10 (1984), 13–23

 

On the period 1150–1186:

  1. The Letters of Bernard of Clairvaux, ed. Bruno Scott James (Sutton, 1998), letter no. 410 to Bernard’s Uncle Andrew, a Templar. BX4700.B5.

 

  1. Geoffrey Fulcher, commander of the Temple, writes to King Louis VII of France, in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, no. 19, pp. 97–9. See also his two letters in Letters from the East, trans. Barber and Bate (2010), pp. 58–9 (D176.L3); there are also many other useful letters in this volume.

 

  1. The Siege of Ascalon, 1153, according to contemporary or near-contemporary western European sources, translated from the editions in the MGHS by Bill Zajac. Photocopy Collection and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/Ascalon.html

 

  1. Ibn Al-Qalânisi, The Damascus Chronicle of the crusades, extracted and translated from the chronicle of Ibn al-Qalânisi by H.A.R. Gibb (London, 1932), pp. 330–332. D151.I2.

 

  1. Usamah ibn Munqidh, Memoirs, in Memoirs of a Arab-Syrian Gentleman, trans. P. K. Hitti (Beirut, 1964), pp. 163–4: a Muslim reaction to the Templars. D152.U8.

 

  1. Anonymous pilgrim 5, 2 in Anonymous Pilgrims I – VIII (11th and 12th centuries) trans Aubrey Stewart, Palestine Pilgrims Text Society vol. 6 (1894), History Research Collection, BX2321.J3.L4: pp. 29–30. Description of Templars in battle, and Military Orders’ discipline.

 

  1. John of Würzburg, trans. Aubrey Stewart, in Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, vol. 5 (London, 1891). (History Research Collection: BX2321.J3.L4), chapters 5 and 15. Also in Jerusalem Pilgrimage 1099–1185, ed. J. Wilkinson, J. Hill and W.F. Ryan, Hakluyt Society, 2nd series vol. 167 (1988): humanities periodical, shelved under ‘Hakluyt’. Pro-Hospitaller and anti-Templar writer.

 

  1. Theodoric: Theoderich’s description of the Holy Places, circa 1172 AD, trans. Aubrey Stewart, Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, vol. 5 (London, 1891). History Research Collection: BX2321.J3.L4. Read chapters 17, 18, 28, 29, 30, 39, 40, 41, 44. Also in Jerusalem Pilgrimage. This writer disagrees with John of Würzburg.

 

  1. Nigel Wireker, The Book of Daun Burnell the Ass (Nigel Wireker’s Speculum Stutorum), trans. G. W. Regenos (Austin, 1959), pp. 101–117, esp. pp. 103, 104, 116. PA8445.W5.S7. Composed against a background of the Templars’ defeat in 1179: gives an insight to contemporary western views.

 

  1. Roger of Howden’s chronicle, trans. as The annals of Roger de Hoveden, vol. 1, pp. 452–3 (events of 1177); vol. 2 (1180–1201), p. 54 – a fictional story based on rumour?

 

  1. Bernard Hamilton, The Leper King and his Heirs: Baldwin IV and the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (Cambridge, 2000), D184.4.H2

 

  1. Hans E. Mayer, ‘Henry II and the Holy Land’, English Historical Review, 97 (1982),721–39; also available online from JSTOR

 

  1. Jonathan Riley-Smith, ‘The Templars and the Castle of Tortosa in Syria’, English Historical Review, 84 (1969), 278–88; also available online from JSTOR

 

  1. Jonathan Phillips, Defenders of the Holy Land: Relations between the Latin East and the West, 1119–1187 (Oxford, 1996), D183.P4

 

21.  R. C. Smail, ‘Latin Syria and the West, 1149–1187’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series 19 (1969), 1–20.

 

On the fall of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade (1187–92: use the index!)

22.The Conquest of Jerusalem, trans. Peter W. Edbury (Aldershot, 1996). D163.A3.C6 – the first document, the ‘Old French Continuation’, was written half a century after the crusade, in the 1240s. It was written to defend the Ibelin family and their allies, who were blamed by western writers (such as Ambroise and the author of the Itinerarium peregrinorum) for the disasters of 1187.

 

23.Arab Historians of the Crusades, ed. and trans. F. Gabrielli, part 1 no.7, part 2 pp. 119–125, 138–9, 139–146. D151.G2.

 

24.The History of the Holy War: Ambroise’s Estoire de la guerre sainte, ed. Marianne Ailes and Malcolm Barber with a translation by Marianne Ailes (Woodbridge Suffolk, 2003) PQ1425.A34.A4, vol. 2 for translation. This was written shortly after the Third Crusade by an Anglo-Norman layman, the poet Ambroise.

 

25.Itinerarium Peregrinorum. Translated as Chronicle of the Third Crusade, trans. H. Nicholson (1997). D151.R4. Most of Book 1 was written during the crusade by a crusader; the rest of Book 1 and Books 2–6 are a translation of Ambroise’s ‘history’, with additions, written down in the 1220s. See the index, especially pp. 25–6, 34, 39, 42, 75, 77–9, 81, 209, 240–1, 244, 246, 249–53, 258, 262, 268–70, 275, 279–80, 283, 315, 329–30, 335–7, 348, 352–3, 370.

 

26.The chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the crusading period from al-Kamil fi’l-Ta’rikh. Part 2, Years 541–589/1146–1193: the age of Nur al-Din and Saladin, trans. D.S. Richards (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), D172.I2. Written by a Muslim contemporary of events. See pp. 319–35, 339, 345, 352–3, 355–6, 368, 389, 392.

 

27.The rare and excellent history of Saladin by Baha’ al Dīn Ibn Shaddad, trans. D.S. Richards (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001) DS38.4.S2.B2. Written by an eye-witness, a close friend of Saladin. See pp. 74, 87–9 (these are Military Order castles), 159, 162, 180, 187, 216, 231

 

  1. Roger of Howden’s chronicle, trans. as The annals of Roger de Hoveden, vol. 2 (1180–1201), pp. 62–3 on the coronation of Sybil and Guy, and pp. 64–6, 68–70, 90–1, 126–8, 207–8, 210, 214, 220, 266.

 

  1. M. C. Lyons and D. E. P. Jackson, Saladin: the Politics of the Holy War (Cambridge, 1982), DS38.4.S2.L9

 

Military Order castles

 

·         Adrian Boas, Archaeology of the Military Orders: a survey of the urban centres, rural settlement and castles of the military orders in the Latin east (c. 1120-1291) (London, 2006), CR4701.B6

·         T. S. R. Boase, Castles and Churches of the Crusading Kingdom (London, 1967), Folio NA497.P2.B6

·         Ronnie Ellenblum, ‘Three Generations of Frankish Castle-Building in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem’, in Autour de la première croisade, ed. Balard, pp. 517–51. For pictures of the excavations at Jacob’s Ford (Vadum Iacob), see: http://ateret.huji.ac.il/

·         Ronnie Ellenblum, ‘Frankish and Muslim Siege Warfare and the Construction of Frankish Concentric Castles’, in Dei Gesta per Francos: Études sur les croisades dédiées à Jean Richard; Crusade Studies in Honour of Jean Richard, ed. Michel Balard, Benjamin Z. Kedar and Jonathan Riley-Smith (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 187–98. D159.D3

·         Richard P. Harper and Denys Pringle, Belmont Castle: The Excavation of a Crusader Stronghold in the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Oxford, 2000), Folio DS110.S8.H2

·         Hugh Kennedy, Crusader Castles (Cambridge, 1994), NA1465.K3

·         Lawrence, ‘The Castle of Baghras’, in The Cilician kingdom of Armenia, ed. T. S. R. Boase (Edinburgh, 1978), DS186.C4

·         Kristian Molin, Unknown Crusader Castles (London, 2001), D172.M6.

·         Denys Pringle, ‘Templar Castles on the Road to Jordan’, in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber, chapter 16.

·         Denys Pringle, ‘Templar Castles between Jaffa and Jerusalem’, in The Military Orders, vol. 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 89–109.

·         Denys Pringle, ‘Towers in Crusader Palestine’, in Château Gaillard: Études de Castellologie médievale: XVI Actes du Colloque International tenu à Luxembourg (Caen, 1994) Folio NA 7710.C4

·         R. C. Smail, Crusading Warfare, chapter 7

 

Hospitaller work

See especially:

·                     The articles by Susan Edgington, Benjamin Z. Kedar and Klaus Militzer in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Helen Nicholson.

·                     Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitallers’ Medical Tradition: 1291–1530’, in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber, pp. 64–81; reprinted 1999 in his The Hospitaller State on Rhodes and its Western Provinces, 1306–1462 (Aldershot: Variorum, 1999), chapter 10

·                     Piers D. Mitchell, Medicine in the Crusades: warfare, wounds, and the medieval surgeon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), D157.M4

 

Agriculture

  1. Denys Pringle, Secular buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: an archaeological gazetteer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press | 1997), Short Loan Reference, Folio D183.P7; and online
  2. Adrian J. Boas, Archaeology of the military orders : a survey of the urban centres, rural settlement and castles of the military orders in the Latin east (c. 1120-1291) (London and New York: Routledge, 2006), CR4701.B6: chs 6 and 7

 

 

Weeks 4–5: William of Tyre (lecture and seminar 4)

 

How reliable is William of Tyre’s account of the deeds of the Military Orders in the Holy Land before 1185?

 

Text for study in class:

Read the extracts from the chronicle of William, archbishop of Tyre, A History of Deeds done Beyond the Sea, trans. E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey (New York, 1943), D151.W4:

Vol. 1 pp. 80, 335, 408–9, 426–7, 524–7 (pp. 524–7 is the section on the establishment of the Templars: see Document 1, above)

and Vol. 2, pp. 40, 59, 82, 104 (these pages are also available in the photocopy collection filed under William of Tyre, Book 13);

Vol. 2, pp. 193–5, 203, 218, 225–30 (photocopy collection under William of Tyre, Book 17);

Vol. 2, pp. 239, 253, 256, 261 (photocopy collection under William of Tyre, Book 18)

Vol. 2, pp. 306, 312, 319–22, 349–51, 371–5, 378, 387, 390–4, 416, 423–36, 436–45, 447–8, 455–7, 507–9 (also available in bound form as William of Tyre, Books 19–23).

(Two of these incidents are also in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, nos 11 and 13, with Walter Map’s version at no. 12: pp. 73–82.

Vol. 2, pp. 227–8 is also translated online at: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/tyre-latindisarray.html#ascalon

 

Other primary source material to consider:

For the proceedings of the Third Lateran Council of 1179 (at which William was present) see:

http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Councils/ecum11.htm

Walter Map, De Nugis Curialium, ed. and trans. M. R. James, C. N. L. Brooke and R. A. B. Mynors (Oxford, 1983), pp. 55–73, 125, 135, 375. PA8380. Walter Map was at the Third Lateran Council in 1179, as was William of Tyre. They held similar views on the Military Orders and on religious orders in general.

 

On the siege of Ascalon (ESSENTIAL):

The Siege of Ascalon, 1153, according to contemporary or near-contemporary western European sources, translated from the editions in the MGHS by Bill Zajac. Photocopy Collection and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/Ascalon.html

Essential accounts of the siege, based on better sources than William of Tyre, and giving a completely different picture.

 

Secondary sources on William of Tyre

  1. R. H. C. Davis, ‘William of Tyre’, in Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages, ed. Derek Baker (Edinburgh, 1973), pp. 64–76. D119.R3 and Photocopy Collection
  2. Peter W. Edbury, ‘Propaganda and Faction in the Kingdom of Jerusalem: the Background to Hattin’, in Maya Shatzmiller, ed., Crusaders and Muslims in twelfth-century Syria (Leiden, 1993), D159.C7:  pp. 172–189. Reprinted in his Kingdoms of the Crusaders (Variorum, Aldershot, 1999), D182.E3. On run-up to disasters of 1187: note role of Brother Gerard de Rideford, master of the Temple.
  3. Peter W. Edbury and John G. Rowe, William of Tyre: Historian of the Latin East (Cambridge, 1988). D152.W4.E3.
  4. Peter W. Edbury, ‘The Old French William of Tyre, the Templars and the Assassin Envoy’ in The Hospitallers, the Mediterranean and Europe, Festschrift for Anthony Luttrell, ed. Karl Borchardt, Nikolas Jaspert and Helen J. Nicholson (Aldershot, 2007), pp. 25–38: CR4723.H6
  5. Bernard Hamilton, ‘The Templars, the Syrian Assassins and King Amalric of Jerusalem, in The Hospitallers, the Mediterranean and Europe, ed. Borchardt et al., pp. 13–24: CR4723.H6
  6. Helen Nicholson, ‘Before William of Tyre: European Reports of the Military Orders’ Deeds in the East, 1150–1185’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 111–18.
  7. D. Vessey, ‘William of Tyre and the Art of Historiography’, Mediaeval Studies, 35 (1973), 433–55; and in Photocopy Collection

 

There is some information about William of Tyre’s work in the entry in The Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, ed. Kelly Boyd (London, 1999), Reference D14.E6;

The Blackwell Dictionary of Historians, ed. John Cannon, R.H.C. Davis, William Doyle, Jack P. Greene (Oxford, 1988), Reference, D14.B5;

The Crusades: An Encyclopedia, ed. A. V. Murray (2006), vol. 4, pp. 1281–2 (Reference: D155.C7).

 

See also Barber, New Knighthood, ch. 3; Riley-Smith, Knights, chs 1–3; Nicholson, Templars, Hospitallers... pp. 43–48, 82–83

 

 

Weeks 5 and 7: Military Orders in the Holy Land in the thirteenth century (lecture 5). How reliable are Philip of Novara’s and Matthew Paris’s accounts of the events of the crusade of the Emperor Frederick II? – especially those relating to the roles of the Military Orders? (seminar 5)

 

Texts to be discussed in class

 

1. Philip of Novara, ‘Memoirs’, translated as The Wars of Frederick II against the Ibelins in Syria and Cyprus by Philip de Novare, trans. John L. La Monte (1936), pp. 73–92, 96–7, 134–5, 169–170, 170–4. D179.P4.

Or look at the online Medieval Sourcebook: Philip de Novare: Les Gestes des Ciprois, The Crusade of Frederick II, 1228–29

at: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1228frederick2.html

 

2. Extracts from the Chronicles of Matthew Paris relating to the Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic knights, trans. H. Nicholson (Photocopy Collection under Paris/Matthew). Start at the beginning with 1229: Templars’ and Hospitallers’ pride and treachery and the letter of Gerard, Patriarch of Jerusalem; then compare this with the Flores Historiarum 1229 and the Historia Anglorum 1229 at the end.

Also available online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MATTHEW.html

 

Other primary sources relating to Frederick II’s crusade

 

Arab Historians of the Crusades, ed. and trans. F. Gabrielli, part 3 no. 2 pp. 267–80.

 

Christian society and the Crusaders, 1198–1229: sources in translation, trans. with notes by John J. Gavigan; ed. with an intro. by Edward Peters (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971), pp. 146–70: D151.C4

 

Background

  • See Setton, A History of the Crusades, vol. 2, chapter 12, online at: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/History-idx?type=article&did=History.CrusTwo.i0026&id=History.CrusTwo&isize=M
  • Hans Mayer, The Crusades, ch. 11: Riley-Smith, The Crusades, pp. 149–51.
  • Jean Richard, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, trans. Janet Shirley, 2 vols (Amsterdam, 1979), vol. 1, pp. 232–39. D182.R4.
  • Judith Bronstein, The Hospitallers and the Holy Land: financing the Latin East, 1187–1274 (Woodbridge, Suffolk and Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer, 2005), pp. 110–15, BX2825.B7
  • Nicholas E. Morton, The Teutonic knights in the Holy Land, 1190–1291 (Woodbridge, 2009), CR4765.M6

 

Secondary sources relating to Philip of Novara or Matthew Paris

 

  1. R. N. Berard, ‘Grapes of the Cask: a Triptych of English Monastic Historiography’, Studia Monastica, 24 (1982). Photocopy Colletion.

 

  1. J. Bromily, ‘Philip of Novara’s Account of the War between Frederick II of Hohenstaufen and the Ibelins’, Journal of Medieval History, 3 (1977)

 

  1. W. N. Bryant, ‘Matthew Paris, Chronicler of St Albans’, History Today, 19 (1969).

 

  1. Richard Vaughan, Matthew Paris (Cambridge, 1958) – has a solid black spine. DA228.M2.V2.

 

  1. Björn Weiler, ‘Matthew Paris on the writing of history’, Journal of Medieval History, 35 (2009), 254–278

 

  1. Antonia Gransden, Historical Writing in England c.550–1307 (Ithaca NY, 1974), ch. 16. Short Loan DA1.G7

 

  1. Helen Nicholson, ‘Steamy Syrian Scandals: Matthew Paris on the Templars and Hospitallers’, Medieval History, 2.2 (1992) – you can ignore the first paragraph, which was a joke for ‘A’ level students in 1992.

 

  1. Sophia Menache, ‘Rewriting the History of the Templars according to Matthew Paris’, in Cross Cultural Convergences in the Crusader Period, ed. Michael Goodich, Sophia Menache and Silvia Schein (New York, 1995), D159.C7

 

  1. James M. Powell, ‘Patriarch Gerold and Frederick II: the Matthew Paris Letter’, Journal of Medieval History, 25, 1 (1999), 19–26.

 

Look up Matthew Paris and Philip of Novara in The Crusades: An Encyclopedia, ed. A. V. Murray (2006), vol. 3, pp. 807–8, 955 (Reference: D155.C7).

 

General historical background

 

  1. David Abulafia, Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor (London, 1988), DD151.A2. Chapter 5 is on the emperor Frederick’s crusade.

 

  1. Peter W. Edbury, The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades (Cambridge, 1991), chapter 4. DS54.6.E3

 

  1. Peter Edbury, John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Woodbridge, 1997), pp. 34–57, especially 34–35 on Philip of Novara

 

  1. David Jacoby, ‘The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Collapse of Hohenstaufen Power in the Levant’, no. III in his Studies in the Crusader States and on Venetian expansion (Aldershot, 1989), DS38.6.J2.

 

  1. Colin Morris, ‘The Case of the Missing Martyrs: Frederick II’s War with the Church, 1239–1250’, in Martyrs and Martyrologies, ed. D. Wood, Studies in Church History, 30 (1993), pp. 141–52. Humanities Periodical shelved under ‘Studies in Church History’.

 

  1. Joshua Prawer, ‘Military Orders and Crusader Politics in the second half of the XIIIth Century’, in Die geistlichen Ritterorden Europas, ed. J. Fleckenstein and M. Hellmann (Sigmaringen, 1980) – not in ASSL: article in Photocopy collection.

 

On the myth of the last emperor, see http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/anonanti.html

 

Week 7: The Military Orders and the Crusades to the Holy Land, 1250–1280 Week 8: Seminar 6: What role did the Military Orders play in the first crusade of King Louis IX (1248--54)?

 

What roles did the Military Orders perform during the crusade?

How far did they contribute towards the success or failure of King Louis's efforts?

How far did their policies interfere with King Louis's own policies? Would Louis have done better to have allowed them to follow their own judgement?

 

Look at a map:

  • Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Atlas of the crusades (London, 1991), pp. 96–7: Short Loan (Reference): Folio D157.A8
  • or: map on p. 486 of ‘The Crusades of Louis IX’, chapter 14 in The later Crusades, 1189-1311 (1969), ed. R. L. Wolff and H. W. Hazard, pp. 486-518, vol. 2 of Kenneth Setton, A History of the Crusades; online at: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/History-idx?type=article&did=History.CrusTwo.i0028&id=History.CrusTwo&isize=M

 

Primary sources

  • Jean de Joinville, 'The Life of Saint Louis', in Joinville & Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. M.R.B. Shaw (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963), pp. 210, 214, 218–19 (and pp. 220–26 for the Battle of Mansourah, 8 February 1250), 226, 232, 258–60 and 267 (money), 277–8 (and the Assassins), 281, 292–4 (relations with Joinville and with King Louis), 300–1 (Order of St Lazarus), 306–9 (expedition), 319 (on board ship). D151.C4.
    (There is also a old translation of Joinville's biography of Louis IX online at: 
    http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new?id=WedLord&tag=public&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&part=0 . )
  • Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, in 'Extracts from the Chronicles of Matthew Paris', at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MATTHEW.html – under vol. 5, Louis IX's Crusade, particularly Matthew's description of the Battle of Mansurah.
  • Other accounts of the crusade:
  • Al-Makrisi, 'Account of the Crusade of St Louis':  http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/makrisi.asp ;
  • Guy, a knight: 'letter from King Louis's crusade', recorded by Matthew Paris: http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/1249sixthcde-let.asp
  • Jean Sarrasin in ‘Letter of Jean Sarrasin, crusader’, ed. Jeanette Beer, in Journeys toward God: Pilgrimage and Crusade, ed. Barbara N. Sargent-Baur (Kalamazoo, MI., 1992), PN682.P5.J6, pp. 135–155. On the capture of Damietta in 1249.
  • There are also many sources in: Peter Jackson, The Seventh Crusade, 1244-1254: sources and documents (Aldershot, 2007), D167.S3 – far more than you need for this seminar.

 

Secondary sources

  • Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood, pp. 148–55
  • William C. Jordan, Louis IX and the challenge of the Crusade: a study in rulership (Princeton, N.J, 1979) DC91.J6
  • Jacques Le Goff, Saint Louis, trans. Gareth Evan Gollrad (Notre Dame, IN, 2009), DC91.L3
  • Simon Lloyd, 'William Longespee II: The Making of an English Crusading Hero', parts 1 and II, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 35  (1991),41–69 and 36 (1992), 79–125
  • Mayer, The Crusades, 2nd edn, chapter 13
  • Nicholas Morton, The Teutonic knights in the Holy Land, 1190-1291 (Woodbridge, 2009),  chapter 6: CR4765.M6
  • Jean Richard, The Crusades, c.1071-c.1291 (Cambridge ; New York, 1999), Short Loan: D157.R4
  • Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Knights of St John in Jerusalem and Cyprus c.1050-1310 (Basingstoke 1967), pp. `98–9, 129, 182–3 and look up ‘Louis IX’ in the index:  Short Loan: CR4725.R4
  • Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Knights Hospitaller in the Levant, c.1070-1309 (Basingstoke, 2012), CR4723.R4
  • Christopher Tyerman, England and the Crusades, 1095–1588 (Chicago and London, 1988), pp. 108–10
  • and also: XIV: ‘The Crusades of Louis IX’, in The later Crusades, 1189-1311 (1969), ed. R. L. Wolff and H. W. Hazard, pp. 486-518, vol. 2 of Kenneth Setton, A History of the Crusades, online at: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/History-idx?type=article&did=History.CrusTwo.i0028&id=History.CrusTwo&isize=M

 

The Background to events: 1240–1260

 

Primary sources

 

  • Continuations of William of Tyre’s chronicle: Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century: the Rothelin Continuation of the History of William of Tyre with part of the Eracles or Acre text, trans. Janet Shirley (Aldershot, 1999). You are advised to ignore the introduction for the purposes of this course. D172.C7
  • Letters in Letters from the East: Crusaders, Pilgrims and Settlers in the 12th–13th Centuries, trans. Malcolm Barber and Keith Bate (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010), pp. 146–63. D176.L3

 

Matthew Paris’s English history, from the year 1235 to 1273, trans. J.A Giles (London, 1889–93), DA220.P2

Vol. 1 pp. 62–4, 168–9, 272–3, 296, 303,  363–8, 386, 409, 456, 482–4, 491–500. Vol. 2 pp.52–3, 68, 83, 146–8, 174–5, 239, 319–20, 335–6, 343–4, 360–4, 366–87, 391, 405–10, 415, 501. Vol 3 pp. 33–34, 89–90, 250–1, 327–8.

             or 1247–1250 in Chronicles of Matthew Paris, trans. Richard Vaughan (Gloucester, 1984), pp. 118, 181, 193–4, 209–10, 217, 227–30, 233–37, 239–256, 260, 273–77. All at DA220.P2.

 

Secondary sources

1.    Malcolm Barber, ‘Supplying the Crusader States: the Role of the Templars’, in The Horns of Hattin, ed. Kedar, and in his Crusaders and Heretics

2.    Peter Edbury, ‘The Crusader States’, Photocopy collection. This is the most useful general guide: highly recommended. This is a chapter in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 5, ed. David Abulafia, (Cambridge, 1999), D117.N3

3.    Peter Jackson, ‘The Crusades of 1239–41 and their Aftermath’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 50 (1987), 32–60: Photocopy collection only.

4.    Peter Thorau, The Lion of Egypt: Sultan Baybars I and the Near East in the Thirteenth Century, trans. P. M. Holt (London, 1992), DT96.3.B2.T4

 

 

Weeks 8–9: The loss of Acre (lecture 6, lecture and seminar 7).

 

How far were the Military Orders to blame for the decline of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the loss of Acre in 1291?

 

Texts for discussion in class:

Document 3: an account of the loss of Acre from the Annals of Erfurt;

Letter of John de Villiers, master of the Hospital. Both trans. H. Nicholson, in Documents relating to the Military Orders, trans. H. Nicholson. Photocopy Collection and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS3.htm

 

Other primary sources on the loss of Acre:

  1. Bar Hebraeus, The chronography, trans. E. A. W. Budge, vol. 1 (the English translation) (1932, 1976), pp. 492–3. D17.B2. This portion of the text is by Bar Hebraeus’s continuator, not the great man himself.
  2. (Ramon Muntaner) The chronicle of Muntaner, trans. Lady Goodenough, 2 vols., Hakluyt Society 2nd series vols. 47, 50 (1920, 1921), vol. 2 (i.e. Hakluyt vol. 50), p. 466. Shelved with humanities periodicals under Hakluyt. Or online: Ramon Muntaner, Chronicle, trans. Lady Goodenough (Cambridge, Ontario: In Parenthesis Publications, Catalan series, 2000), at: http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/muntaner_goodenough.pdf , pp. 390–91: – ‘Montpelegrin’ is the Templars’ coastal fortress of Castle Pilgrim.

Also translated in The Catalan Expedition to the East: From the Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner, trans. Robert D. Hughes, intro. J.N. Hillgarth (Barcelona and Woodbridge, 2006), DF633.32.M8.M8, pp. 21–24. (The original Catalan version is: Ramon Muntaner, Crònica, ed. M. Gustà (1979, etc.), vol. 2, ch. 194, pp. 58–60. DP124.8.M8.)

  1. The Memoirs of a Syrian prince: Abu’l-Fidā’, Sultan of Hamāh (672–732/1273–1331), trans. Peter M. Holt (Wiesbaden, 1983), pp. 12–17 (events from 1284–1291) Folio DS94.97 A2.
  2. The Templar of Tyre: Part III of the ‘Deeds of the Cypriots’, trans. Paul Crawford (Aldershot, 2003), D177.C4
  3. The whole of Brother John of Villiers’s letter to Brother William de Villaret is in Edwin James King, The Knights Hospitallers in the Holy Land (London, 1931), CR4723.K4, pp. 301-2; and in Letters from the East, trans. Malcolm Barber and Keith Bate (Farnham, 2010), pp. 165–66 D176.L3 (and see the previous letter, pp. 164–5, on the loss of Tripoli in 1289)
  4. Ludolph of Suchem, ‘The Fall of Acre in 1291’. Available online at: http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/1291acre.asp.Ludolph/ Ludolf made a journey to the Holy Land in 1336–41 and wrote around 1350, so this was written over 50 years after events. Translation taken from Ludolph of Suchem, Description of the Holy Land and of the Way Thither, trans. Aubrey Stewart (London: Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, 1895), XII, 54­61. reprinted in James Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary History, (Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1962), pp. 268–72

 

Secondary sources

See the general histories on the crusades: Mayer, The Crusades, ch. 14; Riley-Smith, The Crusades, chs 7–8; Setton, A History of the Crusades, vol. 2, chs 16 and 22, online at:

http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/History-idx?type=header&id=History.CrusTwo

 

Specific studies:

  1. Marie Luise Favreau-Lilie, ‘The Military Orders and the Escape of the Christian Population from the Holy Land in 1291’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), 201–27

 

  1. Aryeh Grabois, ‘The Cyclical Views of History in Late Thirteenth-Century Acre’, in From Clermont to Jerusalem: the Crusades and Crusader Societies, 1095–1500, ed. Alan V. Murray (Turnhout, 1998), pp. 131–9. D157.F7

 

  1. Silvia Schein, ‘Babylon and Jerusalem: the Fall of Acre, 1291–1995’, in From Clermont to Jerusalem, ed. Murray, pp. 141–50. D157.F7

 

The Background to events: 1260–1291

 

Primary sources

Burchard of Mount Sion, trans. Aubrey Stewart, Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, vol. 12 (1896), History Research Collection, BX2321.J3.L4: pp. 6, 9, 13, 14, 18, 20, 21, 26, 27, 43, 93, 94.

 

Continuations of William of Tyre’s chronicle: Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century: the Rothelin Continuation of the History of William of Tyre with part of the Eracles or Acre text, trans. Janet Shirley (Aldershot, 1999). D172.C7

 

Ibn al-Furat, ‘Tarikh al-Duwal wa’l-Mulūk’, trans. as Ayyubids, Mamlukes and Crusaders / selections from the ‘Tarikh al-Duwal wa’l-Mulak’ of Ibn al-Furat; text and trans. Ursula and M. C. Lyons, intro. Jonathan S.C. Riley-Smith, vol. 2, the translation (Cambridge: Heffer, 1971), D167.I2,  pp. 2–7, 21–33, 53–56, 73–82, 88–89, 98, 104, 105, 108–112, 127, 128, 144–6, 151–2.

 

Joseph de Chauncy, treasurer of the Order of the Hospital, in ‘Letter from Sir Joseph de Cancy, knight of the Hospital, to King Edward I’, and ‘Letter from Edward I to Sir Joseph’, trans. W. Sanders, in Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, vol. 5 (1888), History Research Collection, BX2321.J3.L4.

 

Ricaut Bonomel, Templar minstrel: on his view of events in 1265, see http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/ricaut.html

 

Sources in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, nos 15, 16, 20, 21; pp. 82–93, 99–105. (N.B., on p. 104, line 9 up, the word translated as ‘labourers’ is stipendarios, which means ‘mercenaries’)

 

Secondary sources

5.    Jean Dunbabin, Charles I of Anjou: Power, Kingship and Statemaking in Thirteenth-Century Europe (London, 1998), DG847.2.D8

6.    Peter W. Edbury, ‘The Disputed Regency of the kingdom of Jerusalem, 1264–6 and 1268’, Camden Miscellany, 27, Camden Society, 4th series, 22 (1979) (shelved with Humanities periodicals under ‘Camden’). Reprinted in his Kingdoms of the Crusaders  (Variorum, Aldershot, 1999)

7.    Marie Luise Favreau-Lilie, ‘The Teutonic knights in Acre after the fall of Montfort (1271): Some Reflections’, in Outremer, ed. B. Z. Kedar.

8.    Peter M. Holt, ‘Mamluk-Frankish Diplomatic Relations in the Reign of Baybars (685–76/1260–77)’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 32 (1988)

9.    Peter M. Holt, ‘Qalaoun’s treaty with Acre in 1283’, English Historical Review, 91 (1976), also available online from JSTOR

10.     Norman Housley, The Later Crusades, 1274–1580: From Lyons to Alcazar (Oxford, 1992), D171.H6

11.     Peter Jackson, ‘The Crisis in the Holy Land in 1260’, English Historical Review, 95 (1980), 481–513: also available online from JSTOR

12.     Peter Jackson, ‘The End of Hohenstaufen rule in Syria’, [Bulletin of the Institute of] Historical Research, 59 (1986), 20–36

13.     Morton, The Teutonic knights in the Holy Land, 1190–1291, CR4765.M6

14.     Peter Thorau, The Lion of Egypt: Sultan Baybars I and the Near East in the Thirteenth Century, trans. P. M. Holt (London, 1992), DT96.3.B2.T4

 

Castles (those not already discussed under the twelfth century)

  1. M. Ehrlich, ‘Crusaders’ Castles: the Fourth Generation: Reflections on Frankish Castle-building policy in the thirteenth Century’, Journal of Medieval History, 29 (2003), 85–93
  2. D. J. Cathcart King, ‘The taking of Le Krak des Chevaliers in 1271’, Antiquity, 23 (1949), 83–92
  3. C. N. Johns, Pilgrim’s Castle (’Atlit), David’s Tower (Jerusalem) and Qal at ar-Rabal (‘Ajlun), ed. Denys Pringle (Aldershot, 1997). Pilgrim’s Castle was a major castle of the Templars
  4. Denys Pringle, ‘Reconstructing the castle of Safad’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly, 17 (1985), 139–49
  5. Judith Upton-Ward, ‘The surrender of Gaston and the rule of the Templars’, chapter 18 in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber.

 

See Barber, New Knighthood, ch. 5; Nicholson, Templars, Hospitallers... ch. 7; Riley-Smith, Knights, chs. 6–7. See also the material for the thirteenth century, above.

 

 

Weeks 9–10: The Iberian Peninsula and the ‘Reconquest’ (lecture and seminar 8)

 

Were the Military Orders in the Iberian peninsula anything more than tools of the kings in their wars of expansion?

 

Texts for study in class

 

Document 4: charters of the kings of Aragon and including extracts from Bernard Desclot, Chronicle of the reign of King Pedro III of Aragon, and Chronicles of James I, king of Aragon, trans. J. Forster, 2 vols. (London, 1883), pp.19–24 (James’ childhood); 183–88 (capture of Majorca); pp. 210–11 (capture of Minorca); pp.266–9 (relations between James and the Military Orders); pp. 644–50 (the second council of Lyons, 1274). This is in Documents relating to the Military Orders, trans. H. Nicholson, Photocopy Collection, and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS4.htm

James of Aragon’s autobiography, is now online at http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/jaume_forster.pdf. There is now also a new and better edition of James of Aragon’s autobiography:

The Book of Deeds of James I of Aragon: a Translation of the Medieval Catalan, by Damian Smith and Helena Buffery (Aldershot, 2003), DP129.J2. Use the index.

 

Other primary sources:

The Rule of the Spanish Military Order of St. James 1170–1493, ed. and trans. Enrique Gallego Blanco (Leiden, 1971), CR5877.R8

 

Donations in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, nos 17–18, pp. 93–97, and no. 35, pp. 161–3; many of the sources in section 4 (under ‘economic development’ and ‘financial services’) relate to the Iberian Peninsula.

 

Short anecdote in Caesarius of Heisterbach, The dialogue on miracles, trans. H. von E. Scott and C. C. Swinton Bland, with an introduction by G. G. Coulton (London: G.Routledge & sons, ltd., 1929), PA8295.C3.S2, vol. 2 pp. 68–9: a miraculous vision during the crusaders’ siege of Alcazar in 1217.

 

 

Secondary sources

Most useful on the Military Orders:

  1. Alan Forey, The Templars in the Corona de Aragón (London, 1973). Bound photocopy. CR4755.S6.A7.F6 or online at: http://libro.uca.edu/forey/templar1.htm .

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘The Military Orders and the Spanish Reconquest in the Twelfth and Thirteenth centuries’, Traditio, 40 (1984), and in his Military Orders and Crusades: CR4701.F6

 

  1. Derek W. Lomax, Another Sword for St. James (1974) Pamphlet. DP99.L6 [This pamphlet went missing in spring 2006 and is currently being sought by the library.]

 

  1. Elena Lourie, ‘The will of Alfonso I, “El Batallador”, King of Aragon and Navarre: a reassessment’, Speculum, 50 (1975), 635–51, and in her Crusade and Colonisation: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Medieval Aragon (Variorum, 1990), DP125.L6; and available in Speculum online in JSTOR.

 

On the Crusade (look in the ASSL under DP99.XX):

  1. C. J. Bisko, ‘The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest, 1095–1492’, in Kenneth Setton, ed., A History of the Crusades, vol. 3. ch. 12, pp. 396–456: D157.H4, and online at: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/History-idx?type=article&did=History.CrusThree.i0024&id=History.CrusThree&isize=M

 

  1. Derek Lomax, The Reconquest of Spain (1978), p.107ff, and index. DP99.L6
  2. Angus Mackay, Spain in the Middle Ages: from Frontier to Empire, 1000–1500 (Basingstoke, 1977). DP99.M2
  3. Joseph F. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain (Philadelphia, 2003) DP99.O2

 

Additional reading:

  1. In The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber, chapters 30–32 on various specific aspects of the Spanish orders; nos. 2 and 3 on the Hospital in Spain.
  2. T. N. Bisson, ‘Credit, Prices and Agrarian Production in Catalonia: a Templar Account (1180–1188)’, in Order and Innovation in the Middle Ages, ed. W. C. Jordan et al. (Princeton, 1976) D200.O9
  3. C. Estow, ‘The Economic Development of the Order of Calatrava, 1158–1366’, Speculum, 57 (1982): also available online from JSTOR
  4. Alan Forey, ‘The Order of Mountjoy’, Speculum, 46 (1971), 250–66 and in his Military Orders and Crusades; Speculum is also available online from JSTOR.
  5. Alan Forey, ‘A Thirteenth-Century Dispute between the Templars and the Hospitallers in Aragon’, Photocopy Collection.
  6. José Manuel Rodríguez García, ‘Alfonso X and the Teutonic Order’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 319–27
  7. Christopher Gerrard, ‘Opposing Identity: Muslims, Christians and the Military Orders in Rural Aragon’, Medieval Archaeology, 43 (1999), 143–60
  8. Nikolas Jaspert, ‘Bonds and Tensions on the Frontier: the Templars in Twelfth-Century Western Catalonia’, in Mendicants, Military Orders and Regionalism in Medieval Europe, ed. Jürgen Sarnowsky (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 19–45. CR4705.M3
  9. Joseph F. O’Callaghan, ‘Hermandades between the Military Orders of Calatrava and Santiago during the Castilian reconquest, 1158–1252’, Speculum, 64 (1969), 609–18. Available online via JSTOR.
  10. Joseph Strayer, ‘The Crusade against Aragon’, Speculum, 28 (1953) (and available online via JSTOR) – for the background to the reigns of Pedro III and Alfonso III of Aragon (see Document 4, nos A/6 and B/1).

 

 

Weeks 10–11: The Teutonic order and the crusade to the Baltic (lecture and seminar 9)

 

Why did the Teutonic order become involved in crusades to the Baltic and Prussia? Did it achieve its aims?

 

Texts for consideration in class

Livonia:

The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016–1471, trans. Robert Michell and Nevill Forbes, Camden Society 3rd Series 25 (1914), p. 81, AD 1237; pp. 85–7, AD 1240–87 (the battle at Lake Chud: the subject of Eisenstein’s film Alexander Nevsky), pp. 93–4, 101–4. Describes the Teutonic Order’s early wars against the Russians in the Baltic: the order are called ‘The Nemsky’, (foreigners). (This is now in SCOLAR (Special Collections) under DA20.C2.) Also in the Photocopy Collection: a portion of the introduction, and the pages given above for the seminar, filed under ‘Chronicle of Novgorod’.

 

The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, trans. J. C. Smith and William Urban (1977 and 2001), lines 2065–2263; gives the Teutonic Order’s view of the battle at Lake Chud. DK511.L36.L4; on this see: See also: Alan V. Murray, ‘The Structure, Genre and Intended Audience of the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle’, in Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier, 1150–1500, ed. Alan V. Murray (Ashgate, 2001), pp. 235–51

 

Prussia:

Documents relating to the Baltic crusade, trans. H.J.N. Photocopy Collection. Look at the documents on Prussia. The documents on Livonia are useful background for the above. Catalogued under Nicholson, Documents on the Library catalogue. Also on the web at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/TEUTONIC.html

 

Other primary texts

The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, trans. James Brundage (Madison, 1961), DK 511 L3 H3. Describes the early history of the Swordbrothers, the Military Order of Livonia.

Nicolaus von Jeroschin, The Chronicle of Prussia: A History of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, 1190–1331, trans. Mary Fischer (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010) PT1548.J2.K7

 

 

Secondary sources on the Baltic Crusade

  1. Michael Burleigh, ‘The Military Orders in the Baltic’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 5, ed. Abulafia

 

  1. Eric Christiansen, The Northern Crusades: the Baltic and the Catholic Frontier, 1100–1525 (Macmillan, 1980), DK511.B3.C4

 

  1. Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt, The Popes and the Baltic Crusades, 1147–1254 (Leiden, 2007), BX1263.F6

 

  1. K. Gorski, ‘The Teutonic order in Prussia’, Medievalia et Humanistica, 17 (1966), 20–37: periodical not in ASSL: article in Photocopy Collection

 

  1. Einar N. Johnson, ‘The German crusade on the Baltic’, in Kenneth M. Setton, ed., A History of the Crusades, vol. 3 (1975) and online at http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/History-idx?type=article&did=History.CrusThree.i0028&id=History.CrusThree&isize=M

 

  1. Elizabeth Kennan, ‘Innocent III, Gregory IX and Political crusades: a Study in the Disintegration of Papal Power’, Reform and Authority in the Medieval Church, ed. Guy Fitch Lytle (Washington, D.C., 1981) Photocopy Collection.

 

  1. William Urban, The Baltic Crusade (1975 and 1995) – the 1995 version is the second edition and therefore better, but the first edition is still a good read. DK511.L36.U7

 

  1. William Urban, ‘Victims of the Baltic Crusade’, Journal of Baltic Studies, 29 (1998), 195–212: not in ASSL: photocopy collection.

 

  1. William Urban, The Teutonic Knights: A Military History (London, 2003), CR4765.U7

 

General secondary sources on the Baltic area

  1. F. L. Carsten, The Origins of Prussia (Oxford, 1954), DD350.C2.
  2. Norman Housley, The Later Crusades, ch. 11 and use the index.
  3. Alan V. Murray, Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150–1500 (Aldershot, 2001), D157.C7. Many useful articles here.
  4. Alan V. Murray, The Clash of Cultures on the Medieval Baltic Frontier (Aldershot, 2009), BR937.B2.C5. Again, many useful articles.
  5. W. F. Reddaway etc., The Cambridge History of Poland to 1696 (1950), DK414.A3.C2. ch. 5.

 

Articles on specific aspects of the Teutonic Order’s crusade

  1. Barbara Bombi, ‘Innocent III and the Origins of the Order of Swordbrothers’, in The Military Orders, vol. 3: History and Heritage, ed. Victor Mallia-Milanes (Aldershot, 2008), pp. 147–53. CR4701.M4
  2. H. Cohn, review of F. Benninghoven, Der orden der Schwertbruden, in English Historical Review, 82 (1967), 372–4. For current thinking on the Livonian Military Order, the Swordbrothers.
  3. Sven Ekdahl, ‘The Treatment of Prisoners of War during the fighting between the Teutonic Order and Lithuania’, chapter 27 in The Military Orders, Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber
  4. Sven Ekdahl, ‘Horses and Crossbows: Two Important Warfare Advantages of the Teutonic Order in Prussia’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 119–151
  5. Marie-Luise Favreau-Lilie, ‘Mission to the Heathen in Prussia and Livonia: The Attitudes of the Religious Military Orders Towards Christianization’, in Christianizing Peoples and Converting Individuals, ed. Guyda Armstrong and Ian N. Wood (Brepols, 2000), pp. 147–54. BR253.C4
  6. John Fennell, The Crisis of Medieval Russia, 1200–1304 (London, 1983), DK90.F3. Use index.
  7. Z. Hunyadi, ed., The Crusades and the Military Orders, section six on the Baltic Crusades.
  8. Raza Mažeika, ‘Of Cabbages and Knights: Trade and Trade Treaties with the Infidel on the Northern frontier, 1200–1390’, Journal of Medieval History, 20 (1994)
  9. Raza Mažeika, ‘ “Nowhere was the fragility of their sex apparent”: Women warriors in the Baltic Crusade Chronicles’, in From Clermont to Jerusalem: the Crusades and Crusader Societies, 1095–1500, ed. Alan V. Murray (Turnhout, 1998), pp. 229–48. D157.F7
  10. R. Mažeika, ‘Granting Power to Enemy Gods in the Chronicles of the Baltic Crusades’, in Medieval Frontiers: Concepts and Practices, ed. David Abulafia and Nora Berend (Aldershot, 2002), D21.5.M3, pp. 153–71.
  11. Klaus Militzer, ‘From the Holy Land to Prussia: the Teutonic Knights between Emperors and Popes and their Policies until 1309’, in Mendicants, Military Orders and Regionalism in Medieval Europe, ed. Jürgen Sarnowsky (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 71–81. CR4705.M3.
  12. Morton, The Teutonic knights in the Holy Land, 1190–1291, CR4765.M6
  13. Aleksander Pluskowski, The archaeology of the Prussian Crusade: holy war and colonisation (London, 2013), DK4600.P773.P5
  1. Stephen Rowell, ‘A Pagan’s word: Lithuanian Diplomatic Procedure 1200–1385,’ Journal of Medieval History, 18 (1992), 145–160
  2. William Urban, ‘Roger Bacon and the Teutonic knights’, Journal of Baltic Studies, 19 (1988), 363–70: periodical not in ASSL: Photocopy Collection.
  3. William Urban, ‘The Organization of the Defense of the Livonian Frontier in the Thirteenth Century’, Speculum, 48 (1973), 525–32: online at JSTOR

 

 

FINAL DISCUSSION: WERE THE MILITARY ORDERS SUCCESSFUL AS MILITARY FORCES?

 

A ‘pen and talk’ whole group discussion.

Consider the different frontier areas where the Orders were active. Were they successful in what they set out to achieve? (You will have to decide what their aims were e.g. did the Teutonic order set out to convert the Prussians or to conquer them?)

 

If they were unsuccessful, why? Was this because of their own failings alone, or were other factors involved? For instance, how far were the Military Orders to blame for the loss of Acre in 1291?

 

Reading

Revise everything we have done in seminars 4–9, and look at some other crusades:

Alan Forey, ‘The Military Orders and Holy war against Christians in the Thirteenth Century’, English Historical Review, 104 (1989), 1–24; also available online from JSTOR; and in his Military Orders and Crusades

Norman Housley, ‘Politics and heresy in Italy: Anti-heretical crusades, orders & confraternities, 1200–1500’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 33 (1982), 193–208

Peter Lock, ‘The Military Orders in mainland Greece’, chapter 37 in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber.

Norman Housley, The Italian Crusades: The Papal-Angevin Alliance and the Crusades against Christian Lay Powers, 1254–1343 (Oxford, 1982), D173.H6.

 

 

 

PART TWO: EVERYDAY LIFE: THE MILITARY ORDERS AT HOME

 

 

Second semester, week 1: Relations with donors (seminar 10).

 

Who gave gifts to the Military Orders? Why did they give (and why did they choose a Military Order in preference to another religious order)? What did they give?

 

Text for study in class

Document 5: ‘Charters of donation to the Military Orders’ in Documents relating to the Military Orders, trans. H. Nicholson. Photocopy Collection and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS5.htm

 

Other primary sources for reading before class

Translated charters in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, nos 35–41, pp. 161–69

 

General collections of charters: use the index to find references to the Templars, Hospitallers and Order of St Lazarus:

  • Diana E. Greenway, Charters of the Honour of Mowbray (London, 1972), HC254.3.M6.
  • Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154, 3 (1135–1154), ed. H. A. Cronne, R. H. C. Davis (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968), DA190.R3.

 

Collections of charters to the Templars and Hospitallers: in Latin, but look at the introduction to each charter to see who is giving what, when and (sometimes) why:

  • Records of the Templars in the Twelfth Century: the Inquest of 1185 with illustrative Charters and Documents, ed. Beatrice Lees (London, 1935), History Research Collection, CR4755.G7.R3.
  • The Cartulary of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem in England, Secunda Camera, Essex, ed. Michael Gervers (London, 1982), History Research Collection: CR4729.G7.C2 .
  • The Cartulary of the Knights of St. John; Prima Camera, Essex. part 2, ed. Michael Gervers (London, 1994), History Research Collection: CR4729.G7.C2 .

 

Secondary sources

  1. Janet Burton, Monastic and Religious orders 1000–1300, ch. 10

 

  1. Janet Burton, ‘The Knights Templar in Yorkshire in the Twelfth Century: a Reassessment’, Northern History, 27 (1991), 26–40

 

  1. Malcolm  Barber, ‘The Templar Preceptory of Douzens (Aude) in the Twelfth Century’, in The World of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Literature and Society in Southern France between the Eleventh and Thirteenth Centuries, ed. Marcus Bull and Catherine Léglu (Woodbridge, 2005), DC607.45.W6

 

  1. Klaus van Eickels, ‘Knightly Hospitallers or Crusading Knights? Decisive factors for the Spread of the Teutonic Knights in the Rhineland and the Low Countries, 1216–1300’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 75–80

 

  1. C. Litton Falkiner, ‘The Hospital of St John in Ireland’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 26C no.12 (1907), 275–317

 

  1. Luis García-Guijarro Ramos, ‘The Aragonese Hospitaller Monastery of Sigena: its Early Stages, 1188–ca. 1210’, in Anthony Luttrell and Helen Nicholson, eds, Hospitaller Women in the Middle Ages (Aldershot, 2006), BX2825.H6 – Queen Sancha of Aragon as a patron of the Hospitallers.

 

  1. Johannes Mol, ‘The Beginnings of the Military Orders in Frisia’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 307–17

 

  1. H. Nicholson, ‘Margaret de Lacy and the Hospital of St John at Aconbury, Herefordshire’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 50 1999), 629–51.

 

  1. Dominic Selwood, Knights of the Cloister: Templars and Hospitallers in Central-Southern Occitania, c. 1000–c.1300 (Woodbridge, 1999), CR4701.S3: ch. 4

 

  1. John Walker, ‘The Motives for Patrons of the Order of St. Lazarus in England in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’, in Monastic Studies I: the Continuity of Tradition, ed. Judith Loades (Headstart History, 1990). Salisbury collection Folio Collection, WG5.1.M

 

  1. John Walker, ‘Crusaders and Patrons: the Influence of the Crusades on the Patronage of the Order of St. Lazarus in England’, chapter 36 in The Military orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber (much the same material as his other article)

 

  1. Herbert Wood, ‘The Templars in Ireland’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 25C no.14 (1906), 327–77

 

See also:

  1. Constance B. Bouchard., Sword, Miter and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy, 980–1198 (Ithaca NY, 1987), BX2614.B8.B6, esp. chapter 10.
  2. Emma Mason, ‘Timeo barones et dona ferentes’, in Religious Motivation: Biographical and Sociological Problems for the Church Historian, ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History, 15 (1978). (Shelved with Humanities Periodicals under Studies in Church History). On relations between patrons and religious orders.
  3. Nicholson, Templars, Hospitallers... esp. ch. 4.

 

 

Second semester, Weeks 1–2: Organisation and everyday life of religious orders and Military Orders (lecture and seminar 11).

 

How were the Military Orders organised? Were all the orders the same?

Where did their rules originate? Were they original or were they based on something older?

How did they spend their days?

How did their lifestyle compare to (a) other religious orders and (b) other landowners in general?

 

Document 6: ‘The Monastic day; Templars’ day’, in Documents relating to the Military Orders, trans. H. Nicholson. Photocopy Collection, and online at http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS6.htm

Also in Nicholson, The Knights Templar, pp. 138–9. Reprinted as A Brief History of the Knights Templar (Stroud, 2010), CR4743.N4, pp. 152–3

 

Texts for consideration in class

Henri de Curzon, ed., The Rule of the Templars: the French text of the Rule of the Order of the Temple, trans. J. M. Upton-Ward (Woodbridge, 1992), CR4737.C8: sections 9–76. (The whole thing is relevant, but there is a limit to what we can do in class.) You can also find it at

http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/t_rule.html

 

The Rule, Statutes and Customs of the Hospitallers, 1099–1310, with introductory chapters and notes by E.J. King (London, 1934) CR4717.O7. This incorporates the material in :

  • The Early Statutes of the Knights Hospitallers, ed. E. J. King (1932) (photocopy collection)
  • The Thirteenth century Statutes of the Knights Hospitallers, ed. E. J. King (1933) (Pamphlet; and Photocopy Collection.)

 

E. J. King, The Knights Hospitaller in the Holy Land (London, 1931) pp. 324–8 for a translation of the first rule of the Hospital, (c. 1123–5?) – or see the scanned pages in the Bibliography for this seminar on Blackboard.

 

For the first part of the Rule of the Teutonic Order, see:

http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/tk_rule.html

 

See also the sources in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, section three.

 

Other texts to look at before class

The Rule of St. Benedict in Latin and English, ed. and trans. Abbot Justin McCann (London, 1952), BX3004.A4.F76; also in Section 3 of Owen Chadwick, Western Asceticism (London, 1958), BR53.L. The text of the Rule of St Benedict is also available via ORB (http://www.the-orb.net/encyclo.html) at http://www.osb.org/rb/text/toc.html#toc. How similar is it to the Templars’ and Hospitallers’ Rules?

 

The Hospitallers’ Rule was based on the Rule of St Augustine:

http://www.midwestaugustinians.org/prayerrule.html or http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/ruleaug.html

 

For an illustration of how the rules might work in practice see the anecdote about the Templars at prayer in Caesarius of Heisterbach, The dialogue on miracles, trans. H. von E. Scott and C. C. Swinton Bland, PA8295.C3.S2, vol. 2 pp. 47–8.

 

Secondary works

General works

  1. Janet Burton, Monastic and Religious orders in Britain (1994), chs 7–8
  2. C. H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism (1984, etc.)

 

Works on the Military Orders

  1. See the general works on the Military Orders: Alan Forey, The Military Orders, Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood; Jonathan Riley-Smith, Knights of St. John (part 2 and pp. 271–3); Henry Sire, Knights of Malta.

 

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Charitable and Medical Activities of the Hospitallers and Templars’, in: A History of Pastoral Care, ed. Gillian R. Evans (London, 2000), pp. 148–168. BV4011.H4

 

  1. Elena Bellomo, The Templar order in north-west Italy (1142–c.1330) (Leiden and Boston, 2008), CR4755.I8.B3

 

  1. Jochen Burgtorf, Central convent of Hospitallers and Templars: history, organization, and personnel (1099/1120–1310) (Leiden and Boston, MA, 2008), BX2825.B8.

 

  1. Jochen Burgtorf, ‘Structures in the Orders of the Hospital and the Temple (Twelfth to Early Fourteenth Century) – Select Aspects’, in The Crusades and the Military Orders, ed. Z. Hunyadi.

 

  1. Jochen Burgtorf, ‘Wind Beneath the Wings: Subordinate Headquarters Officials in the Hospital and the Temple from the Twelfth to the Early Fourteenth Centuries’, in The Military Orders, vol. 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 217–24.

 

  1. Jochen Burgtorf and Helen Nicholson, eds, International Mobility in the Military Orders (Cardiff, 2006), CR4701.I6: most of the chapters are relevant to this subject, but you don’t need to read the whole book – read a selection.

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘Notes on Templar Personnel and Government at the turn of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries’, Journal of Medieval History, 35 (2009), 150–170 and available online

 

  1. Eileen Gooder, Temple Balsall: The Warwickshire Preceptory of the Templars and their Fate (Chichester, 1995), CR 4755.G8.W2.G6 – everyday life of country folk Templars.

 

  1. The Cartulary of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem in England, Secunda Camera, Essex, ed. Michael Gervers (London, 1982), History Research Collection: CR4729.G7.C2 . Introduction.

 

  1. The Cartulary of the Knights of St. John; Prima Camera, Essex. part 2, ed. Michael Gervers (London, 1994), History Research Collection: CR4729.G7.C2 . Introduction.

 

  1. Michael Gervers, ‘Pro defensio Terre Sancte: the Development and Exploitation of the Hospitallers’ Landed Estate in Essex’, chapter 1 in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Rhodian Background of the Order of St. John’, in his The Hospitallers of Rhodes, article no. XVIII; on the relics owned by the order.

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitallers’ Medical Tradition, 1291–1530’, in The Military Orders: Fighting for the faith, ed. Barber, pp. 64–81; and in his The Hospitaller State on Rhodes and its Western Provinces, 1306–1462

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell and Helen Nicholson, eds, Hospitaller Women in the Middle Ages (Aldershot, 2006), BX2825.H6; look at the chapters by Struckmeyer, Mol, or L’Hermite-Leclercq. How did the different religious houses in a region relate to each other?

 

  1. Klaus Militzer, ‘The Role of Hospitals in the Teutonic Order’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 51–9

 

  1. William Rees, A History of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in Wales and on the Welsh border, including an Account of the Templars (Cardiff, 1947), WG 4R and CR4731.G7.R3

 

  1. William Rees, ‘The Templar Manor of Llanmadoc’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, 13 (1949), on the contents of a Templar manor in the early fourteenth century.

 

  1. Dominic Selwood, Knights of the Cloister: Templars and Hospitallers in Central-Southern Occitania, c. 1000–c.1300 (Woodbridge, 1999), ch. 5

 

  1. Idris Sterns, ‘Crime and Punishment among the Teutonic knights’, Speculum, 57 (1982), and online at JSTOR

 

  1. Articles by Nicholson, Weiss, Forey, Ekdahl, Gervers, Borchardt in La Commanderie: Institution des ordres militaires dans l’Occident médiéval, ed. Anthony Luttrell and Léon Pressouyre (Paris, 2002), Folio CR4701.C6

 

Archaeology

General works on the archaeology of monasteries

  1. Michael Aston, Monasteries (London, 1993), BX2592.A8

 

  1. Wolfgang Braunfels,  Monasteries of Western Europe: the Architecture of the Orders, trans. Alastair Laing (Princeton, 1972), Folio NA4850.B7

 

  1. J. Patrick Greene, Medieval Monasteries (Leicester, 1992 and 1995), BX2592.G7

 

On the Military Orders

For castles in the East, see the ‘castle’ lists in the bibliographies for the crusades in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

 

For the Orders’ houses in the West:

  1. Archeologia: Tresor des ages, no. 27 March–April 1969 has pictures of Templar properties. (Note the French spelling! This large blue volume is shelved with the Humanities periodicals after the Greek journal ARCAIOLOG IKON DELTION)

 

  1. La commanderie, ed. Luttrell and Pressouyre, is devoted to the study of the Orders’ houses in the West – lots of plans and pictures

 

  1. Libor Jan and Vít Jesenský, ‘Hospitaller and Templar Commanderies in Bohemia and Moravia: their Structure and Architectural Forms’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 235–49

 

  1. R. Gern, ‘The early church of the Knights Templar at Shipley, Sussex’, in Anglo-Norman Studies 6: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1983, ed. R. A. Brown. pp. 238–46. (Periodical: shelved under Anglo-Norman Studies)

 

  1. Eileen Gooder, Temple Balsall , has some useful plans.

 

  1. Roberta Gilchrist, Contemplation and Action: the Other Monasticism (London, 1995), ch. 3 on the Military Orders’ architecture. 1 copy at BX2592.G4; one in Lifelong Learning Library.

 

  1. Philip Mayes, Excavations at a Templar Preceptory: South Witham Lincolnshire, 1965–67 (Leeds, 2002), Folio DA 670.L69.M2

 

  1. S. E. Rigold, ‘Two camerae of the Military Orders: Strood Temple, Kent, and Harefield, Middlesex’, Archaeological Journal, 122 (1965)

 

  1. Jonathan Riley-Smith, Hospitallers, pp. 78–87

 

  1. Pál Ritoók, ‘The Architecture of the Knights Templars in England’, chapter 17 in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber, pp. 167–78

 

  1. Royal Commission on Historical Monuments, Houses of the North York Moors (London, 1987), Folio NA7329.Y6.H6, pp. 15–25: on the Templar (later Hospitaller) house at Foukebrigge (now called Foulbridge) in North Yorkshire. How did it compare in size and in quality of building techniques to (a) other religious houses in the area and (b) other manor houses in the area?

 

  1. Barney Sloane and Gordon Malcolm, Excavations at the priory of the Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell, London (London: Museum of London Archaeology Service, 2004), Folio DA685.C5.S5

 

  1. The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, nos 52–3, pp. 184–201, for two inventories of Templar property.

 

 

 

Weeks 2–3: Recruitment to religious and Military Orders (lecture and seminar 12).

 

Who joined the Military Orders and why did they join?

 

Texts for study in class

Document 5: ‘Charters of donation to Military Orders’ in Documents relating to the Military Orders, trans. H. Nicholson, Photocopy Collection and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS5.htm

 

The Rule of the Templars, trans. Upton-Ward, pp. 168–174 for admission ceremony; also p. 22 no. 11, p. 23 no. 14, p. 36 no. 70 (but see no. 72!)

 

The Rule, Statutes and Customs of the Hospitallers, 1099–1310, ed.  E.J. King, CR4717.O7

OR Extracts in:

·         The Early Statutes of the Knights Hospitallers, ed. E. J. King (1932) (photocopy collection) pp. 23–25 for admission ceremony.

·         The Thirteenth century Statutes of the Knights Hospitallers, ed. E. J. King (1933) (Pamphlet; and Photocopy Collection), p. 11 no. 22 on sisters; p. 17 no. 3, p. 23 no.7, p. 25 no. 2.

 

E. J. King, The Knights Hospitaller in the Holy Land, pp. 324–8 for translation of the first rule of the Hospital (c.1123–5?), p. 324 no. 1; now available online on Blackboard

 

(Ramon Muntaner) The Chronicle of Muntaner, trans. Lady Goodenough, vol. 2, Hakluyt Society 2nd series vol. 50 (1921), p. 466. Shelved with periodicals under ‘Hakluyt’. Why one brother joined. Online: Ramon Muntaner, Chronicle, trans. Lady Goodenough (Cambridge, Ontario: In Parenthesis Publications, Catalan series, 2000), at: http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/muntaner_goodenough.pdf , pp. 389–91. Also translated in The Catalan Expedition to the East: From the Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner, trans. Robert D. Hughes, intro. J.N. Hillgarth (Barcelona and Woodbridge, 2006), DF633.32.M8.M8, pp. 21–24.

 

Other primary sources for reading before class

Caesarius of Heisterbach, The Dialogue on Miracles, trans H. E. Scott and C. C. Swinton Bland (London, 1929), vol. 2, pp. 342–3. A monk becomes a Templar. PA8295.C3.S2

 

Salimbene da Parma, The Chronicle of Salimbene de Adam, trans. Joseph L. Baird, Giuseppe Baglivi, and John Robert Kane (Binghamton, N.Y., 1986), BX4705.S24.S2. See pp. 251–257: entering the Temple as a penance; p. 335: a noble brother.

 

Jacques de Vitry, Sermons to a Military Order (Photocopy collection, under H. Nicholson/trans. and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/VITRY.html), for anecdotes about the brothers’ piety – and criticism of instances of lack of piety.

 

The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, no. 39, pp. 166–7.

 

Secondary sources

  1. Carlos de Ayala Martínez, ‘The sergents of the Military Order of Santiago’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 225–33

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘Recruitment to the Military Orders’, Viator, 17 (1986), and his Military Orders and Crusades.

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘Novitiate and Instruction in the Military Orders’, Speculum, 61 (1986), 1–17 and his Military Orders and Crusades; Speculum is online at JSTOR

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘Towards a Profile of the Templars in the early 14th Century’, chapter 20 in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber.

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘Women and the Military Orders in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’, in his Military orders and Crusades.

 

  1. Alan J. Forey, ‘Desertions and Transfers from Military Orders (Twelfth to early-Fourteenth Centuries)’, Traditio, 60 (2005), 143–200

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘Notes on Templar Personnel and Government at the turn of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries’, Journal of Medieval History, 35 (2009), 150–170 and available online

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘Hospitaller Life in Aragon, 1319–1370’, in God and Man in Medieval Spain, ed. Lomax and Mackensie.

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell and Helen Nicholson, eds, Hospitaller Women in the Middle Ages (Aldershot, 2006), BX2825.H6; look at the chapter by L’Hermite-Leclercq. Why did Fleur join the Hospital and what did she do there?

 

  1. Joseph H. Lynch, ‘Monastic Recruitment in the eleventh and twelfth Centuries: Some Social and Economic Considerations’, American Benedictine Review, 26 (1975), 425–47: Photocopy Collection, filed under ‘Lyons.’

 

  1. Klaus Militzer, ‘The Recruitment of Brethren for the Teutonic Order in Livonia, 1237–1562’, 28 in Barber, ed., The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber.

 

  1. H. Nicholson, ‘Templar Attitudes Towards Women’, Medieval History, 1,1 (1991).

 

  1. H. Nicholson, ‘The Military Orders and their Relations with Women’, in The Crusades and the Military Orders, ed. Z. Hunyadi

 

  1. Jochen Schenk, ‘Forms of lay association with the Order of the Temple’, Journal of Medieval History, 34 (2008), 79–103

 

 

Weeks 3–4: Literature and art (lecture and seminar 13).

 

Texts for discussion in class

Literature

Document 7: ‘Literature of the Military Orders’ (in Documents relating to the Military Orders, in the Photocopy Collection, and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS7.htm) including a summary list of the orders’ literature and extracts from selected pieces.

 

For another of the pieces of literature written for the Templars see The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, no. 23, pp. 111–15

 

Art

See pictures in:

  1. Archeologia: Tresor des ages, no. 27 March–April 1969 has reproductions of the frescoes in the Templars’ former chapel at Cressac, France.

 

  1. J. Folda, ‘Crusader Frescoes at Crac des Chevaliers and Marqab Castle’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 36 (1982), pp. 177–210, Folio DF552.D8 (published in 1983)

 

  1. J. Fuguet Sans, ‘Pintures, miniaturas y graffiti de los Templarios en la Corona de Aragon’, in Religiones Militares: Contributi alla Storia degli Ordini religioso-militari nel medioevo, ed. Anthony Luttrell and Francesco Tommasi (Città di Castello, 2008), pp. 253–63 (photos of Templar paintings and graffiti in the Kingdom of Aragon). CR4701.R3

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘Iconography and Historiography: the Italian Hospitallers before 1530’, Sacra Militia, 3 (2002), 19–46: description of Hospitaller works of art.

 

  1. H. Nicholson, The Knights Templar: A New History (Stroud, 2001), CR4743.N4: pp. 41–2, 78, 125, 142–3, 144, 193.
  2. H. Nicholson, The Knights Hospitaller (Woodbridge, 2001), CR4723.N4, plate 4

 

  1. Jonathan Riley-Smith, Hospitallers, throughout.

 

  1. Militia sacra: gli ordini militari tra Europa e Terrasanta, ed. Enzo Coli, Maria De Marco and Francesco Tommasi (Perugia, 1994), CR4701.M4: pp. 199–202 for the Templars’ cemetery at Barletta, including two Templar tombstones.

 

Writings

General background

  1. Janet Burton, Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain, ch. 9
  2. D. H. Green, Medieval Listening and Reading: the Primary Reception of German Literature, 800–1300 (Cambridge, 1994), PT183.G7

 

Specific studies on the military orders

  1. Karl Borchardt, ‘Two Forged thirteenth-century Alms-raising Letters used by the Hospitallers in Franconia’, chapter 6 in Military orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber.

 

  1. M. Dominica Legge, Anglo-Norman Literature and its Background (Oxford, 1963, 1978), pp. 191–2. PR281.L3

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitaller’s Historical Activities, 1291–1400’, in his Hospitallers in Cyprus, Rhodes, Greece and the West, 1291–1400

 

  1. H. Nicholson, ‘The Head of St Euphemia: Templar Devotion to Female Saints’, in Gendering the Crusasdes, ed. Susan Edgington and Sarah Lambert (Cardiff, 2001), D160.G3

 

  1. H. Nicholson, Templars, Hospitallers, pp. 108–116

 

  1. Judith Oliver, ‘The Rule of the Templars and a Courtly Ballade’, Scriptorium, 35 (1981) (Photocopy Collection)

 

  1. Samuel N. Rosenburg, ‘An Unrecognised Old French Ballade’, Photocopy Collection.

 

  1. R. C. D. Perman, ‘Henri d’Arci: the Shorter Works’, in Studies in Medieval French presented to Alfred Ewert in honour of his seventieth birthday, ed. E. A. Francis (Oxford, 1961), PQ153.S8, pp. 279–321

 

  1. Silvia Schein, ‘The miracula of the Hospital of St. John and the Carmelite Elianic Tradition – Two Medieval Myths of Foundation?’ in Cross-Cultural Convergences in the Crusader period, ed. MichaelGoodich, Sophia Menache and Silvia Schein (New York, 1995), D159.C7

 

  1. K. V. Sinclair, ‘The Anglo-Norman Miracles of the Foundation of the Hospital of St. John in Jerusalem’, Medium Ævum, 55 (1986), 102–8

 

  1. K. V. Sinclair, The Hospitallers’ Riwle (London, 1984), Introduction. PQ1324.H6

 

  1. K. V. Sinclair, ‘The Translations of the Vitas Patruum, Thaïs, Antichrist and Vision de Satin Paul for the Anglo-Norman Templars. Some Neglected Literary Considerations’, Speculum, 72 (1997), 741–62: online under JSTOR

 

  1. Selbstbild und Selbstverständnis der geistlichen Ritterorden (‘self-image and self-understanding of the Military Religious Orders’), ed. Roman Czaja and Jürgen Sarnowsky (Toruń, 2005), articles in English by Alan Forey, Helen Nicholson and  Zsolt Hunyadi: CR4701.S3

 

And see The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, trans. J. C. Smith and William Urban (1977 and 2001), DK511.L36.L4; and Alan V. Murray, ‘The Structure, Genre and Intended Audience of the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle’, in Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier, 1150–1500, ed. Alan V. Murray (Ashgate, 2001), pp. 235–51

 

 

Education

  1. Alan Forey, ‘Literary and Learning in the Military Orders during the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 185–206

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘Fourteenth-century Hospitaller Lawyers’, chapter XVI in his Hospitallers in Cyprus

 

  1. James Brundage, ‘The Lawyers of the Military Orders’, in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber, pp. 346–57

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘Novitiate and Instruction in the Military Orders’, Speculum, 61 (1986), 1–17 (online at JSTOR) and in his Military Orders and Crusades

 

 

WEEK 4: FINAL DISCUSSION: HOW MONASTIC WERE THE MILITARY ORDERS?

 

A ‘pen and talk’ whole group discussion.

Decide what defines a monastic order:

Its particular rules;

Its appearance;

Its way of life;

How it got its money, etc., etc.

And then ask whether these applied to the Military Orders. What was the most important defining factor?

 

Reading

Revise seminars 10–13. The following might also be useful:

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘The Military Orders and the Ransoming of captives from Islam’, in his Military Orders and Crusades.
  2. R. B. Pugh, ‘The Knights Hospitallers as undertakers’, Speculum, (1981), 566–74: also available online from JSTOR
  3. Marie Luise Favreau-Lilie, ‘The Military Orders and the Escape of the Christian Population from the Holy Land’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), 201–27
  4. H. Nicholson, Templars, Hospitallers, ch. 6

 

 

PART THREE: RELATIONS WITH THE PUBLIC IN THE WEST

 

Seminar 14: The Military Orders in European Society: views from outside of these Orders

 

We have examined the Military Orders’ military activities on the frontiers of Christendom, and their activities in their own houses in Western Europe. We now move on to consider their relations with society: their economic activity and their relations with government. From here we will move to look at what became of these institutions after the final loss of Acre in 1291: the dissolution of the Templars and attacks on the Hospitallers and the Teutonic Order.

The materials for this seminar consist of:

  • Chapter eight from Norman Housley's book The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades (the book is available in the University library, and there is a scan of the chapter on Learning Central). This discusses how the Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Order were criticised and attacked in the early fourteenth century.
  • A collection of extracts from French and German literature of the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries: available on Learning Central. These contain some criticism of the Military Orders, but also considerable praise.

Think about:

What were the Military Orders praised for doing?

What were the bases of criticism against them?

On the bases of the criticism, which of these Orders would you have expected to be abolished? (Imagine that you don't know what actually happened.)

 

 

Weeks 7, 8: Royal government: the Military Orders in royal service (lecture and seminar 15).

 

Why did the kings of Europe make so much use of the Military Orders?

 

Texts for consideration in class

Roger of Howden’s chronicle, trans. as The annals of Roger de Hoveden, vol. 1 (732–1180), pp. 257–8, 260, 382–3 (Henry II and the Templars); vol. 2 (1180–1201), pp. 79–80, 98 (the collection of the Saladin tithe).

 

Matthew Paris’ English History, 1235–1273, trans. J.A. Giles (at DA 220.P3)

            Vol. 1 pp. 245–6, 262–3, 322–3. Vol. 2 pp. 52–3, 239–42, 391, 531. Vol. 3 pp. 106–8.

            or 1247–1250 in Chronicles of Matthew Paris, trans. R. Vaughan. pp. 118–20, 201–2, 260.

            or Extracts from the chronicles of Matthew Paris relating to the Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic knights trans. H.J.N. Photocopy Collection, and at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MATTHEW.html

 

Document 8: ‘Letters of Pandulf, papal legate; and: The wills of Philip II, Louis IX and Philip III of France’. In Documents relating to the Military Orders, photocopy collection and online at:

http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS8.htm

 

Jean de Joinville, in Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. M. R. B. Shaw, pp. 258–260, pp. 319–20. D151.C4.

 

Brother Joseph de Chauncy, in ‘Letter from Sir Joseph de Cancy, knight of the Hospital, to King Edward I’, and ‘Letter from Edward I to Sir Joseph’, trans. W. Sanders, in Palestine Pilgrims Text Society 5, right at the end of the volume (Palestine Pilgrims Text Society volumes are in the History Research Collection).

 

Secondary sources

Background: works include:

  1. C. Warren Hollister and John W. Baldwin, ‘The Rise of Administrative Kingship: Henry I and Philip Augustus’, American Historical Review, 83 (1978), 867–905. Also available online at JSTOR
  2. Constance B. Bouchard, Sword, Miter and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy, 980–1198 (Ithaca NY, 1987),  esp. chapter 10. BX2614.B8.B6
  3. Elizabeth Hallam, Capetian France (London, 1980 and 2001), DC82.H2: chs 4.4, 6.4
  4. J. C. Holt, ‘The Loss of Normandy and Royal Finance’, in War and Government in the Middle Ages, ed. John Gillingham and J. C. Holt (Woodbridge, 1984), D117.W2
  5. Emma Mason, ‘Timeo barones et dona ferentes’, in Religious Motivation: Biographical and Sociological problems for the Church Historian, ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History, 15 (1978). On relations between patrons and religious orders. Shelved with Humanities periodicals under ‘Studies in Church History’,
  6. R. Mortimer, ‘Religious and Secular motives for some English Monastic Foundations’, in Religious Motivation, ed. Baker, Studies in Church History, 15 (1978)
  7. Michael L. Prestwich, War, Politics and Finance under Edward I (London, 1972), DA229.P7
  8. W. L. Warren, Henry II (London, 1973), part 2. D206.W2

 

Works on the Military Orders

  1. John W. Baldwin, The Government of Philip Augustus: Foundations of French Royal Power in the Middle Ages Berkeley, 1986), DC90.B2: pp. 115–25 on Brother Garin (here Guérin) of the Hospital and Brother Hamblard of the Temple.

 

  1. Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood, chapter 2

 

  1. Jim Bradbury, Philip Augustus: King of France, 1180–1223 (London, 1998). DC90.D7. Look in index for Guérin de Glapion, bishop of Senlis (alias Brother Garin the Hospitaller).

 

  1. B. Bromberg, ‘The Financial and Administrative Importance of the Knights Hospitaller to the English Crown’, Economic History, vol. 4 no.15, (Feb. 1940), 307–311 (unbound slim green volume at the end of the run of this periodical)

 

  1. J. Edwards, ‘The Templars in Scotland in the Thirteenth century’, Scottish Historical Review, 5 (1908), 13–25.

 

  1. Eleanor Ferris, ‘The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown’, American Historical Review, 8 (1902), 1–17. This is not in the ASSL: article is in the Photocopy collection and available on JSTOR.

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘The Military Orders and Secular Warfare’, Viator (1993), 79–100.

 

  1. C. B. Goni, ‘The Hospitallers and the Castilian-Leonese monarchy’, chapter 3 in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber.

 

  1. Records of the Templars in England in the twelfth century, ed. Beatrice A. Lees (London, 1935), Introduction, pp. xxxvii–lix.

 

  1. Simon Lloyd, English Society and the Crusade, 1216–1307 (Oxford, 1988), DA225.L5. Use the index to find the Templars and Hospitallers.

 

  1. Elena Lourie, ‘The Will of Alfonso I’, Speculum, 50 (1975) and in her Crusade and Colonisation (1990) articles nos. III and IV; Speculum is available online at JSTOR.

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Aragonese crown and the Hospitallers of Rhodes, 1314–1332’, in his The Hospitallers in Cyprus (1978).

 

  1. Hans Mayer, ‘Henry II and the Holy Land’, English Historical Review, 97 (1982), 721–39. Available online from JSTOR.

 

  1. Klaus Militzer, ‘From the Holy Land to Prussia: the Teutonic Knights between Emperors and Popes and their Policies until 1309’, in Mendicants, Military Orders and Regionalism in Medieval Europe, ed. Jürgen Sarnowsky (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 71–81. CR4705.M3

 

  1. H. Nicholson, ‘The Military Orders and the Kings of England in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’, in From Clermont to Jerusalem, ed. Alan Murray, pp. 203–28

 

  1. H. Nicholson, Templars, Hospitallers, chapter 2

 

  1. H. Nicholson, ‘The Knights Hospitaller on the Frontiers of the British Isles’, in Mendicants, Military Orders and Regionalism in Medieval Europe, ed. Sarnowsky, pp. 47–57

 

  1. H. Nicholson, ‘Serving King and Crusade: The Military Orders in Royal Service in Ireland, 1220–1400’, in The Experience of Crusading, vol. 1: Western Approaches, ed. Bull and Housley, pp. 233–52

 

  1. H. Nicholson, ‘International Mobility versus the needs of the realm’, in Jochen Burgtorf and Helen Nicholson, eds, International Mobility in the Military Orders (Cardiff, 2006), pp. 87–101. CR4701.I6

 

  1. T. W. Parker, The Knights Templar in England (Tucson, 1993), CR4755.G7.P2: popularist but useful; especially ch. three on political role.

 

  1. Clarence Perkins, ‘The Knights Templar in the British Isles’, English Historical Review, 25 (1910),  209–230, available from JSTOR

 

  1. James M. Powell, ‘Frederick II, the Hohenstaufen, and the Teutonic Order in the Kingdom of Sicily’, chapter 24 in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber

 

  1. Agnes Sandys, ‘The Financial and Administrative Importance of the London Temple in the Thirteenth Century’, in Essays in Medieval History presented to Thomas Frederick Tout, ed. A. G. Little and F. M. Powicke (Manchester, 1925; repr. Freeport, 1967), D118.E8. A very important article.

 

 

Weeks 7–8: Religious and Military Orders and Economic growth (lecture and seminar 16)

 

What role did the Military Orders play in economic growth? What did their activities do to benefit their local communities?

 

Texts for study in class

Document 9: ‘The Military Orders and Economic Growth’ (in Documents relating to the Military Orders, photocopy collection, and at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS9.htm

 

Other texts for reading before the class

Jean de Joinville in Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. M. R. B. Shaw, pp. 258–9, p. 267

 

(Ramon Muntaner) The Chronicle of Muntaner, trans. Lady Goodenough, vol. 2, Hakluyt Society, 2nd series vol. 50 (1921), p. 466: shelved with Humanities periodicals under ‘Hakluyt’; online at: Or online: Ramon Muntaner, Chronicle, trans. Lady Goodenough (Cambridge, Ontario: In Parenthesis Publications, Catalan series, 2000), at: http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/muntaner_goodenough.pdf , pp. 389–91. Also translated in The Catalan Expedition to the East: From the Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner, trans. Robert D. Hughes, intro. J.N. Hillgarth (Barcelona and Woodbridge, 2006), DF633.32.M8.M8, pp. 21–24.

 

The Dunstable Annals in English Historical Documents, vol. 3, ed. Harry Rothwell (London, 1975), p. 201. DA25.Z1.D6

 

The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, nos 42–51, 54–58, pp. 170–184, 201–211

 

Secondary sources

General sources

  1. Janet Burton, Monastic and Religious orders in Britain, ch. 11
  2. Malcolm Barber, The Two Cities, ch. 3;
  3. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Templar Preceptory of Douzens (Aude) in the Twelfth Century’, in The World of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Literature and Society in Southern France between the Eleventh and Thirteenth Centuries, ed. Marcus Bull and Catherine Léglu (Woodbridge, 2005), DC607.45.W6
  4. E. M. Carus-Wilson, ‘An Industrial Revolution of the Thirteenth Century’, Economic History Review, 11 (1941), reprinted in Essays in Economic History, vol. 1, ed. E. M. Carus-Wilson (London, 1954), pp. 41–60, esp. pp. 45–6 on Templars. (Economic History Review article also online from JSTOR)
  5. Georges Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, trans. Cynthia Postan (London, 1968), HD141.D8: Bk 3, ch. 1
  6. Coburn V. Graves, ‘The Economic Activities of the Cistercians in Medieval England’, Analecta Sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis, 13 (1957), 3–60: article in Photocopy Collection. – for comparison with the Military Orders.
  7. Emilia Jamroziak, ‘Rievaulx Abbey as a wool producer in the late thirteenth century: Cistercians, sheep and big debts,’ Northern History, 40 (2003), 197–218 (ditto, for comparison)
  8. Emilia Jamroziak, ‘Considerate Brothers or Predatory Neighbours? Rievaulx Abbey and Other Monastic Houses in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Century’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 73 (2001), 29–40 (ditto, for comparison)
  9. T. H. Lloyd, The English Wool Trade in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1977), HD9901.5.L5
  10. Helen Nicholson, Knights Hospitaller, ch.5; Helen Nicholson, Knights Templar, ch.7. 
  11. Helen Nicholson, ‘Relations between houses of the Order of the Temple in Britain and their local communities, as indicated during the trial of the Templars, 1307–12’, in Knighthoods of Christ: Essays on the History of the Crusades and the Knights Templar, ed. Norman Housley (Aldershot, Hants and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007), pp. 195–207. D160.K6
  12. N. J. Pounds, An Economic History of Medieval Europe, 2nd edn (London, 1994), HC240.P6: chs. 3–9.
  13. Denys Pringle, Secular buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: an archaeological gazetteer (Cambridge University Press, 1997), Short Loan (Reference) Folio D183.P7. Use the index.

 

Specific sources: Banking

  1. D. M. Medcalf, ‘The Templars as Bankers’, in Coinage in the Latin East, ed. Peter W. Edbury and D. M. Medcalf, British Archaeology Reports (Oxford, 1980), Folio CJ1681.O9

 

  1. Agnes Sandys, ‘Financial and Administrative Importance of the London Temple’, in Essays in Medieval History, ed. Little and Powicke

 

  1. Eleanor Ferris, ‘Financial Relations of the Knights Templar to the English Crown’, Photocopy Collection

 

  1. B. Bromberg, ‘Financial and Administrative Importance of the Knights Hospitaller’, in Economic History, 4.15 (1940), 307–11.

 

  1. Judith Bronstein, The Hospitallers and the Holy Land: financing the Latin East, 1187–1274 (Woodbridge, Suffolk and Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer, 2005), BX2825.B7

 

Shipping

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘Supplying the Crusader states: the Role of the Templars’, in The Horns of Hattin, ed. Kedar

 

  1. Marie Luise Favreau-Lilie, ‘The Military Orders and the Escape of the Christian Population from the Holy Land’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), 201–27

 

  1. H. Nicholson, ‘The Military Orders and the Kings of England in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’, in From Clermont to Jerusalem, ed. Murray, pp. 203–28

 

Colonisers

  1. F. Carsten, Origins of Prussia, ch. 5.

 

  1. Robert Bartlett, The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change 950–1350 (London, 1993), D131.B2: look up Templars; Hospitallers; Teutonic knights in index.

 

  1. Ronnie Ellenblum, ‘Colonization Activities in the Frankish East: The Example of Castellum Regis (Mi’ilya)’, English Historical Review, 111 (1996), 104–122: on the Teutonic Order. Also available online at JSTOR

 

  1. C. Estow, ‘The Economic Development of the Order of Calatrava, 1158–1366’, Speculum, 57 (1982), also available online at JSTOR

 

  1. T. N. Bisson, ‘Credit, Prices and Agrarian Production in Catalonia: a Templar Account (1180–1188)’, in Order and Innovation in the Middle Ages, ed. Jordan et al., D200.O9

 

  1. Aleksander Pluskowski, The archaeology of the Prussian Crusade: holy war and colonisation (London, 2013), DK4600.P773.P5

 

  1. Records of the Templars in England in the twelfth century: the inquest of 1185 with illustrative charters and documents, ed. Beatrice A. Lees (London : Oxford UP, for the British Academy, 1935), History Research Collection, CR4755.G7.R3 , pp. clxxxii–clxxxiii: on Temple Bruer as an area of colonisation

 

Other activities – less economic? Or was there money to be made here?

  1. T. S. Miller, ‘The Knights of St. John and the Hospitals of the Latin West’, Speculum, 53 (1978): also available online from JSTOR

 

  1. R. B. Pugh, ‘The Knights Hospitallers as undertakers’, Speculum, (1981), 566–74: also available online from JSTOR

 

 

Weeks 8–9: The Hospitallers and Teutonic order after 1291: had the Orders outlived their usefulness? (lecture and seminar 17).

 

Consider the effects of the loss of Acre, 1291, on the Military Orders. After the loss of the Holy Land, what new horizons beckoned?

Had the Military Orders outlived their usefulness by 1300?

 

Text for discussion in class:

 

Document 10: ‘Crusade planning in the late thirteenth century’: in Documents Relating to the Military Orders, trans. H. Nicholson. Photocopy Collection and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS10.htm

 

 

Other Primary sources on the recovery of the Holy Land

Ramon Lull, Blanquerna, trans. E. A. Peers, Book 4, chapter 80, parts 7 and 11, pp. 327–8, ‘Gloria in excelis deo’, and p. 330 for details of the new order. Sets out Lull’s plans to reform the Military Orders and form a single order. There is an extract in document 10.

See also the Catalan version. Both of these are at PC3937.L5

 

Norman Housley, trans., Documents on the Later Crusades, 1274–1580 (Basingstoke, 1996), D171.D6. Docs 7 and 9 for Lull’s plans for a new Military Order; doc. 8 for the master of the Hospital’s plan for a crusade; and see doc. 10 also.

 

James of Molay, master of the Temple, in The Templars: Selected Sources, trans. Barber and Bate, no. 22, pp. 105–9, and no. 64, pp. 234–38 (also in Georges Lizerand, Le dossier de l’affaire des Templiers (Paris, 1923), pp. 2–14 (in Latin with French translation), CR4755.F7.L4).

 

Letter of John de Villiers, master of the Hospital, describing the fall of Acre, in E. King, The Knights Hospitaller in the Holy Land (London, 1931), CR4723.K4, pp. 301–2, and in Document 3.

 

Pierre Dubois, The Recovery of the Holy Land, trans. Walther I. Brandt (New York, 1956), D152.D8.

 

The Memoirs of a Syrian prince: Abu’l-Fidā’, Sultan of Hamāh (672–732/1273–1331), trans. Peter M. Holt (Wiesbaden, 1983), p. 40: the Templars lose Arwad Island, 1302. Folio DS 94.97A2.

 

Marino Sanuto, ‘Secrets for the Crusaders to help them Recover the Holy Land’, trans. Aubrey Stewart in Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, 12 (1896), History Research Collection, BX2321.J3.L4. Written 1321,

 

Ludolp von Suchem, ‘Description of the Holy Land’ in ibid. (= the same place).

 

Secondary sources

Crusade Plans and planning

Alain Demurger, ‘Between Barcelona and Cyprus’, in Burgtorf and Nicholson, eds, International Mobility in the Military Orders, pp. 65–74, CR4701.I6

 

Alan Forey, ‘The Military Orders in the Crusading Proposals of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth Centuries’, Traditio, 36 (1980), 317–345 and in his Military Orders and Crusades.

 

Antony Leopold, How to Recover the Holy Land: the Crusade Proposals of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth Centuries (Aldershot, 2000), D171.L3

 

Silvia Schein, Fideles Crucis: the Papacy, the West, and the Recovery of the Holy Land (O.U.P., 1991) D171.S2

 

Silvia Schein, ‘The Templars: the Regular army of the Holy Land and Spearhead of the Army of its Reconquest’ (photocopy collection: from I Templari: Mito e Storia, ed. G. Minucci and F. Sardi, 1989)

 

Silvia Schein, ‘The Future Regnum Hierusalem; a Chapter in Medieval State Planning’, Journal of Medieval History, 10 (1984), 95–105

 

Silvia Schein, ‘Gesta Dei per Mongolos; the Genesis of a non-event’, English Historical Review, 94 (1979), 805–819; also available online from JSTOR

 

Robert Irwin, ‘How many Miles to Babylon? The Devise des chemins de Babilone Redated’, chapter 7 in The Military orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber

 

J. F. Verbruggen, The Art of Warfare in Western Europe During the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 1999), D128.V3, pp. 288–307 on crusade plans.

 

Secondary sources on the crusades in the fourteenth century

Simon Lloyd, English Society and the Crusade, 1216–1307 (Oxford, 1988), DA225.L5;

Christopher Tyerman, England and the Crusades, 1095–1588 (Chicago, 1988), DA178.T9;

Silvia Schein, ‘Philip IV and the Crusade: a reconsideration’, in Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury;

Christopher Tyerman, ‘Sed nihil fecit? The Last Capetians and the Recovery of the Holy Land’, in War and Government in the Middle Ages, ed. John Gillingham and J. C. Holt (Cambridge, 1984), D117.W2: pp. 170–181;

C. Tyerman, ‘Philip V of France, the Assemblies of 1319–20 and the Crusade’, [Bulletin of] Historical Research (1984);

C. Tyerman, ‘Philip VI & the Recovery of the Holy Land’, English Historical Review, 100 (1985), 25–52

 

Secondary sources on the Military Orders in the fourteenth century

See the reading for seminar 7 on the loss of Acre.

 

Eric Christiansen, The Northern Crusades.

 

Paul Crawford, ‘Imagination and the Templars: the Development of the Order-State in the Early Fourteenth Century’, Epethrida (Epeterida), 30 (2004), 113–121: PHOTOCOPY COLLECTION

 

Norman Housley, Later Crusades: From Lyons to Alcazar, chs 7, 11–12.

 

Mark Dupuy, ‘ “An Island Called Rhodes” and the “Way” to Jerusalem: Change and Continuity in Hospitaller Exordia in the Later Middle Ages’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 343–8

 

Sven Ekdahl, ‘Horses and Crossbows: Two Important Warfare Advantages of the Teutonic Order in Prussia’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 119–151

 

Norman Housley, The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades (Oxford, 1986), chapter 8 (very important). D172.H6

 

Norman Housley, ‘Pope Clement V and the Crusades of 1309–10’, Journal of Medieval History, 8 (1982)

 

Zsolt Hunyadi, The Hospitallers in the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary, c. 1150–1387 (Budapest, 2010), on order for library

 

Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1306–1421’, in Kenneth Setton, A History of the Crusades, vol. 3 (http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/History-idx?type=article&did=History.CrusThree.i0020&id=History.CrusThree&isize=M and article no. 1 in his The Hospitallers in Cyprus, Rhodes, Greece and the West (London, 1978), CR4723.L8

 

Anthony Luttrell, ‘Feudal Tenure and Latin Colonisation at Rhodes, 1306–1415’, in English Historical Review, 85 (1970), 755–75 and article 3 in his The Hospitallers in Cyprus, Rhodes, Greece and the West; also available online from JSTOR

 

Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitallers in Cyprus after 1291’; ‘The servitudo marina at Rhodes, 1306–1462’; ‘The Aragonese Crown and the knights of Rhodes, 1291–1350’; ‘Notes on the Chancery of the Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1314–1332’: articles 2, 4, 11 and 15 in his The Hospitallers in Cyprus, Rhodes, Greece and the West.

 

Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitallers’ Interventions in Cilician Armenia, 1291–1375’, and ‘The Crusade in the Fourteenth Century’, articles 5 and 16 in his Latin Greece, the Hospitallers and the Crusades, 1291–1440 (Variorum, 1982), CR4723.L8

 

Anthony Luttrell, ‘Hospitaller Life in Aragon, 1319–1340’, in God and Man in Medieval Spain, ed. Lomax and Mackensie, and article no. 15 in Luttrell, The Hospitallers of Rhodes and their Mediterranean World (Variorum, 1992), CR4723.L8

 

Anthony Luttrell, ‘Settlement on Rhodes, 1306–1366’, in Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury, and no. V in his Hospitallers of Rhodes and their Mediterranean World.

 

Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitallers of Rhodes confront the Turks, 1306–1421’, ‘Notes on Fulk de Villaret, Master of the Hospital, 1305–1319’, ‘Lindos and the defence of Rhodes, 1306–1522’, ‘The Hospitallers in Cyprus, 1310–1378’, ‘Rhodes and Jerusalem, 1291–1411’, ‘The Rhodian Backgroud of the Order of St John on Malta’, ‘The Military and Naval Organization of the Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1310–1444’, articles 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 18, 19 in his Hospitallers of Rhodes and their Mediterranean World.

 

Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitallers’ Medical Tradition, 1291–1530’, in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber, pp. 64–81; and article 10 in his The Hospitaller State on Rhodes and its Western Provinces, 1306–1462.

 

Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Economy of the Aragonese Hospital’, ‘The Hospitaller Priory of Catalunya in the Fourteenth Century’, ‘The Hospitallers of Rhodes between Tuscany and Jerusalem, 1310–1431’, articles 13, 14, 15 and in his The Hospitaller State on Rhodes and its Western Provinces, 1306–1462.

 

Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Military Orders, 1312–1798’, in The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Riley-Smith, pp. 326–64

 

Anthony Luttrell, ‘Change and Conflict within the Hospitaller Province of Italy after 1291’, in Mendicants, Military Orders and Regionalism in Medieval Europe, ed. Sarnowsky, pp. 185–99

 

Raza Mazeika, ‘Of Cabbages and Knights: Trade and Trade Treaties with the Infidel on the Northern Frontier, 1200–1390’, Journal of Medieval History, 20 (1994).

 

Sophia Menache, ‘The Hospitallers during Clement V's Pontificate: the Spoiled Sons of the Papacy?’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 153–62

 

Clarence Perkins, ‘The Knights Hospitallers in England after the Fall of the Order of the Temple’, English Historical Review, 45 (1930). Also available online at JSTOR.

 

Stephen C. Rowell, Lithuania Ascending: a Pagan Empire within east-central Europe, 1295–1345 (Cambridge, 1994), DK511.L23.R6

 

Jürgen Sarnowsky, ‘The Teutonic Order confronts Mongols and Turks’, chapter 26 in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber.

 

William Urban, ‘Victims of the Baltic Crusade’, Journal of Baltic Studies, 29 (1998), Photocopy Collection.

 

 

Weeks 9–10: The trial of the Templars (lecture and seminar 18).

 

Why did Philip IV of France attack the order of the Temple? Why was it destroyed? Why did the other Military Orders escape?

 

See: http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Councils/ecum15.htm – for the proceedings of the Council of Vienne, 1311–12, at which the Order of the Temple was dissolved.

 

Texts for study in class

Document 11: ‘The Trial of the Templars’ (in Documents Relating to the Military Orders, photocopy collection and at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/MILORDOCS11.htm )

 

Other primary sources

The Trial of the Templars in Cyprus: A Complete English Edition, trans. Anne Gilmour-Bryson (Leiden, 1998), CR4749.T7 . The text is O.K., but the introduction is unreliable.

 

The Templars: Selected Sources, ed. Barber and Bate, CR4743.T3. no. 65. pp. 238–41, and Section 6.

 

The Proceedings against the Templars in the British Isles, ed. Helen Nicholson (Farnham, 2011), vol. 2

 

Lynn Thorndike, University Records and Life in the Middle Ages (New York, 1944), LA177.T4 . pp. 233–37: the faculty of Theology at Paris University replies to King Philip IV of France; and the interrogation of the master of the Templars, James of Molay.

 

Secondary sources

See the relevant sections in Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood, and Alan Forey, The Military Orders. Barber’s survey is the most thorough.

 

Most useful specific works:

  1. Malcolm Barber, The Trial of the Templars (Cambridge, 2006), CR4749.B2

 

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘Propaganda in the Middle Ages: the charges against the Templars’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 17 (1973), 42–57.

 

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘The World picture of Philip the Fair’, Journal of Medieval History, 8 (1982), 13–27

 

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Trial of the Templars Revisited’, in The Military Orders, 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. Nicholson, pp. 329–42

 

  1. Jochen Burgtorf, Paul Crawford and Helen Nicholson, eds, The Debate on the Trial of the Templars (1307–1314) (Farnham, 2010).

 

  1. Alan Forey, The Fall of the Templars in the Crown of Aragon (Aldershot, 2001), CR4755.S6.A7.F6

 

  1. Norman Housley, The Later Crusades: From Lyons to Alcazar, ch. 7.

 

  1. Sophia Menache, ‘Contemporary Attitudes concerning the Templars’ Affair: Propaganda’s Fiasco?’ Journal of Medieval History, 8 (1982), 135–47.

 

  1. Peter Partner, The Knights Templar and their Myth (Rochester, VT., 1990), CR4743.P2

 

Additional specific studies:

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘James of Molay, the Last Grand Master of the Temple’, in his Crusaders and Heretics.
  2. Elizabeth A.R. Brown, ‘The Prince is Father to the King: The Character and Childhood of Philip IV of France’, Mediaeval Studies, 49 (1987), 282–334
  3. Elizabeth A.R. Brown, ‘Moral Imperatives and Conundrums of Conscience: Reflections on Philip the Fair of France’, Speculum, 87 (2012), 1–36
  4. Paul Crawford, ‘The University of Paris and the Trial of the Templars’, in The Military Orders, vol. 3: History and Heritage, ed. Victor Mallia-Milanes (Aldershot, 2008), pp. 115–22. CR4701.M4
  5. Alan Forey, ‘The Beginnings of Proceedings against the Aragonese Templars’, in God and Man, ed. Lomax and Mackensie, BR1024.G6

 

  1. Alan J. Forey, ‘Desertions and Transfers from Military Orders (Twelfth to early-Fourteenth Centuries)’, Traditio, 60 (2005), 143–200. Photocopy collection

 

  1. A. J. Forey, ‘Ex-Templars in England’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 53 (2002), 18–37.

 

  1. Alan Forey, ‘Were the Templars Guilty, even if they were not heretics or apostates?’ Viator, 4.2 (2011), 115–141

 

  1. Anne Gilmour-Bryson, ‘A Look Through the Keyhole: Templars in Italy from the Trial Testimony’, in Military Orders, 3: History and Heritage, ed. Mallia-Milanes, pp. 123–130.

 

  1. Anne Gilmour-Bryson, ‘Testimony of non-Templar witnesses in Cyprus’, chapter 21 in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber

 

  1. Anne Gilmour-Bryson, ‘“Vox in excelso” Deconstructed. Exactly what did Clement V say?’ in On the Margins of Crusading: The Military Orders, the Papacy and the Christian World, ed. Helen J. Nicholson, Crusades Subsidia, 4 (Farnham, 2011), ch. 6: available online through Cardiff University library. Other articles in this volume may also be useful.

 

  1. Anne Gilmour Bryson, ‘The London Templar Trial Testimony: “Truth”, Myth or Fable’, in: A World Explored: Essays in Honour of Laurie Gardiner, ed. A. Gilmour-Bryson (Melbourne Australia, 1993), pp. 44–61, online at: http://web.archive.org/web/20101230000557/http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/pdfs/bryson.pdf.

If this link does not work, go to: http://deremilitari.org/articles/ and scroll down the page. A useful survey, but as it is based on David Wilkins’ flawed and summarised edition of the trial proceedings (1737) it shares the errors and omissions of that edition. For instance, on p. 52, Henry Tanet is Brother Henry Danet, commander of Ireland, who did not come to London for the trial – this is a summary of his testimony sent by the inquisitors in Dublin to London for their colleagues’ reference; the commander of Westdall is the commander of Westerdale (Wilkins failed to notice the abbreviation mark in the manuscript); on p. 57, the end of the ‘horrific story’ does appear in the manuscript.

 

  1. James Given, ‘Chasing Phantoms: Philip IV and the Fantastic’ in Heresy and the Persecuting Society in the Middle Ages: Essays on the Work of R.I. Moore, ed. Michael Frassetto (Leiden, 2006), pp. 271–89: BT1319.H3

 

  1. Elizabeth Hallam, ‘Philip the Fair and the Cult of St. Louis’, in Religion and National Identity, ed. S. Mews, Studies in Church History, 18 (1982) – shelved with periodicals and journals under Studies in Church History

 

  1. Elizabeth Hallam, Capetian France 987–1328 (Harlow and New York, 1980 or 2001), ch. 6 on Philip the Fair, especially 6.5 on Philip and the Church. DC82.H2. For further information on Philip IV’s legal trials look up ‘Philippe IV’ in the index of S. H. Cuttler, The Law of Treason and Treason Trials in Later Medieval France (Cambridge, 1981), DC95.6C8.

 

  1. Rosalind Hill, ‘Fourpenny Retirement: the Yorkshire Templars in the Fourteenth Century’, in The Church and Wealth, ed. W. J. Sheils and D. Wood, Studies in Church History, 24 (1987) – shelved with periodicals and journals under Studies in Church History

 

  1. Annetta Ilieva ‘The Suppression of the Templars in Cyprus According to the Chronicle of Leontios Makhairas’, chapter 22 in The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith, ed. Barber. Leontios wrote a century after the trial of the Templars.

 

  1. William Chester Jordan, Unceasing Strife, Unending Fear: Jacques de Thérines and the Freedom of the Church in the Age of the Last Capetians (Princeton, 2005), chs 2–3, BX4705.D38.J6; on the Cistercian abbot who argued in the Templars’ favour at the Council of Vienne in 1312.

 

  1. Agnes M. Leys, ‘The Forfeiture of the lands of the Templars in England’, in Oxford Essays in Medieval History presented to Herbert Edward Salter, ed. F. M. Powicke (Oxford, 1934), D119.O9

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘The Hospitallers of Rhodes: Perspectives, Problems, Possibilities’, article no. 1 in his Latin Greece, the Hospitallers and the Crusades, 1291–1440 (London, 1982), CR4723.L8

 

  1. Anthony Luttrell, ‘Gli Ospitalieri e l’eredità dei Templari’, in his The Hospitallers of Rhodes and their Mediterranean world (summarised by Barber in The New Knighthood, p. 309)

 

  1. Sophia Menache, Clement V (Cambridge, 1998), BX1275.M3

 

  1. Guillaume Mollat, The Popes at Avignon, 1305–1378, trans. from the 9th French edn, 1949 by Janet Love (London, 1963), BX1270.M6.

 

  1. Helen Nicholson, ‘The Testimony of Henry Danet and the Trial of the Templars in Ireland’, in In laudem hierosolymitani: studies in Crusades and medieval culture in honour of Benjamin Z. Kedar, ed. Iris Shagrir et al. (Aldershot, 2007), pp. 422–23: D183.I6

 

  1. Helen J. Nicholson, The Knights Templar on Trial: the Trial of the Templars in the British Isles, 1308–1311 (Stroud, 2009), CR4743.N4

 

  1. Helen J. Nicholson, ‘The changing face of the Templars: current trends in historiography’, History Compass, 8/7 (2010), 653-67. This article is at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1478-0542.2010.00691.x/full

 

  1. Clarence Perkins, ‘The Knights Templars in the British Isles’, English Historical Review, 25 (1910), available online at JSTOR

 

  1. Clarence Perkins, ‘The Trial of the Knights Templars in England’, English Historical Review, 24 (1909), 432–47: available online at JSTOR

 

  1. Clarence Perkins, ‘The Wealth of the Templars in England and the Disposition of it after their Dissolution’ American Historical Review, 15 (1910), 252–63. This volume is not in the ASSL: see photocopy collection and online at JSTOR

 

  1. T. W. Parker, The Knights Templar in England (Tucson, 1993), CR4755.G7.P2: chapter on the trial

 

  1. Silvia Schein, ‘Philip IV and the Crusade’, in Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury, D157.S6

 

  1. Joseph R. Strayer, The Reign of Philip the Fair (Princeton, 1980), DC92.S8

 

  1. Herbert Wood, ‘The Templars in Ireland’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 25C no.14 (1906), 327–77: see 344–61 on the trial. PHOTOCOPY COLLECTION

 

For background, see: Malcolm Lambert, Medieval Heresy (Oxford, 2002, etc.), BT1319.L2  on heresy in general; and Bernard Hamilton, The Albigensian Crusade (Historical Association Pamphlet: London, 1974), DC83.3.H2: pp. 24–7 on how to deal with heretics.

 

WEEK 10: FINAL DISCUSSION: WHAT DID THE MILITARY ORDERS ACHIEVE?

 

A ‘pen and talk’ whole group discussion.

Consider not only achievements in the defence of Christendom but also castle-building, military discipline, economic and commercial development, logistics and (even) culture.

Reading: revise everything!

 

 

WEEK 11: OPTIONAL REVISION CLASS

 

A seminar sheet for this class will be handed out in week 10.

 


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This page was created by  Helen Nicholson, was last updated on 30 September 2013 and is valid until September 2014.

 

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