Cardiff University, Cardiff School of History, Archaeology and Religion, 2013–14

HS1710 Heresy and Dissent, 1000–1450

2013–14

Prof Helen J. Nicholson

Blackboard (http://learningcentral.cardiff.ac.uk): 13/14-HS1710 HERESY & DISSENT 10001450  

Class times: Thursdays 11.10am–12.00 noon; Fridays 12.10pm – 1.00pm in room 4.44

 

Contents of this handbook

 

On successful completion of the module a student will be able to: 2

How the module will be delivered. 3

Skills that will be practised and developed. 3

How the module will be assessed. 3

Timetable. 5

Sample Examination Paper 6

SEMINARS. 7

Assessed 1,000-word essay.. 20

ASSESSED ESSAY (2,000 words) 23

BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 25

 

Course description

 

From 1000 onwards religious dissent became more prominent in Europe. Some religious movements were seen as such a threat to social stability that the authorities went to great lengths to crush them, resorting to crusades, inquisitions and burning those who refused to recant their beliefs. This course will seek to contextualise these movements within the society from which they came and to examine the impact that they made on that society. It will also examine who became involved in such movements and explore reasons for their involvement. Why were so many women attracted to heresy? Why did religious dissent become such a problem for the ecclesiastical and lay authorities and why were those authorities unable to counter that problem effectively? The course will focus on certain large-scale movements such as the Cathars of S. France and the Albigensian Crusade which set out to crush them; the Rhineland mystics; the Lollards of England; the Hussites of Bohemia and the disastrously unsuccessful crusades launched against them. It concludes by looking forward to the Reformation and asks how far the European heresies before 1450 contributed to the religious and philosophical revolution of the sixteenth century.

 

On successful completion of the module a student will be able to:

·         demonstrate a detailed knowledge of heresy and dissent in the middle ages and an understanding of the historical context and historiography of the subject

·         analyse key themes and issues, such as the causes of heresy, in the light of these contexts;

·         identify strengths, weaknesses, problems, and/or particularities of alternative historical/historiographical interpretations, such as the involvement of women in heresy;

·         compare the relative merits and demerits of alternative views and interpretations and evaluate their significance

·         demonstrate an understanding of some of the primary sources and an appreciation of how historians have approached them

 

How the module will be delivered

A range of teaching methods will be used in each of the sessions of the course, comprising a combination of lectures and seminar discussion of major issues. The syllabus is divided into a series of major course themes, then sub-divided into principal topics for the study of each theme.

There will be a total of nineteen lectures, ten seminars and a revision class.

 

Lectures:

The aim of the lectures is to provide a brief introduction to a particular topic, establishing the salient features of major course themes, identifying key issues and providing historiographical guidance. The lectures aim to provide a basic framework for understanding and should be thought of as useful starting points for further discussion and individual study. Where appropriate, handouts and other materials may be distributed to reinforce the material discussed.

 

Seminars:

The primary aim of seminars will be to generate debate and discussion amongst course participants. Seminars for each of the course topics will provide an opportunity for students to analyse and further discuss key issues and topics relating to lectures.

 

In addition, throughout the year the School hosts lectures and seminars on a range of fascinating and exciting topics given by visiting lecturers, scholars and postgraduates across a whole range of disciplines taught in SHARE. These normally take place at 5.15pm on weekdays (Tuesday, Wednesday Thursday), but some will also take place at lunchtimes. We encourage you to attend these events in addition to attending the lectures and seminars on this module. These research seminars are a unique part of the learning experience at University, and, although they may not always seem directly relevant to the courses you are taking, they will contribute to a broad knowledge of history and help develop your skills and approaches as historians. Look out for posters around the school throughout the year to see what’s on – I will also be advertising these to you in class.

 

Skills that will be practised and developed

·         communicate ideas and arguments effectively, whether in class discussion or in written form, in an accurate, succinct and lucid manner.

·         formulate and justify arguments and conclusions about a range of issues, and present appropriate supporting evidence

·         an ability to modify as well as to defend their own position.

·         an  ability to think critically and challenge assumptions

·         an ability to use a range of information technology resources to assist with information retrieval and assignment presentation.

·         time management skills and an ability to independently organise their own study methods and workload.

·         work effectively with others as part of a team or group in seminar or tutorial discussions.

 

How the module will be assessed

 

Students will be assessed by means of a combination of one 1,000-word [15%] and 2000-word assessed essay [35%] and one two-hour unseen written examination paper in which the student will answer two questions [50%].

 

Course assignments:

The two Assessed Essays will contribute 50% of the final mark for the module. They are designed to give students the opportunity to demonstrate their ability to review evidence, draw appropriate conclusions from it and employ the formal conventions of scholarly presentation. The first must be no longer than 1,000 words and the second must be no longer than 2,000 words (excluding empirical appendices and references).

 

The Examination will take place during the second assessment period [May/June] and will consist of an unseen two-hour paper that will contribute the remaining 50% of the final mark for this module. 10 questions will be set; students answer two. Students should NOT answer a question which will result in their repeating significant amounts of material from their assessed essay.

 

The opportunity for reassessment in this module

The usual provisions for reassessment are made in this respect. Individual cases will be decided by the Examination Board of the History Board of Studies. Reassessment generally will take the form of a reassessment of the failed examination via a resit paper in the August Resit Examination Period.

 



Timetable

 

First semester

Part One: An overview of the issues

 

First semester

Wk 1. 3 Oct. Lecture 1. Introduction.

Wk 1. 4 Oct. Lecture 2: What is heresy?

Wk 2. 10 Oct. Seminar 1: What is heresy?

Wk 3. 17 Oct. Lecture 3: The attraction of heresy (1): ‘pull’ factors

Wk 3.18 Oct. Lecture 4:  The attraction of heresy (2): theories about the origins of heresy

Wk 4. 24 Oct. Seminar 2: Why did heresy arise?

Wk 5. 31 Oct. Lecture 5: Reactions to heresy.

Wk 5. 1 Nov. Lecture 6: The repression of heresy.

Wk 6. Guided Study.

Wk 7. 14 Nov. Seminar 3: Why did the Church and the State persecute heresy? How effective was repression of dissidents?

 

Part Two: Individual heresies

 

Wk 8. 21 Nov. Lecture 7: Evangelical heresy 1000–1200: hermits and Waldensians.

Wk 8. 22 Nov. Lecture 8: Heresy at the Universities.

Wk 9. 28 Nov. Seminar 4: The Waldensians.

Wk 10. 5 Dec. Lecture 9: Dualism: The Cathars

Wk 10. 6 Dec. Lecture 10: The Albigensian Crusade.

Wk 11. 12 Dec. Seminar 5: The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade.

Christmas vacation

 

Second semester

Wk 1. 30 Jan. Lecture 11: New Directions: Joachimites and Spiritual Franciscans; and heresy in the British Isles.

Wk 1. 31 Jan. Lecture 12: The heresy of the Free Spirit: Marguerite Porete and Sister Catherine

Wk 2. 6 Feb. Seminar 6: Was the heresy of the Free Spirit dangerous?

Wk 3. 13 Feb. Lecture 13: The troubled 14th century, English intellectuals and John Wycliffe.

Wk 3. 14 Feb. Lecture 14: Wycliffe and the Lollards.

Wk 4. 20 Feb. Seminar 7: Were Lollards revolutionaries?

Wk 4. 21 Feb. Lecture 15: Bohemia and the Hussites;

Wk 5. 28 Feb. Lecture 16: The Hussite Crusades;

Wk 6. Guided Study.

Wk 7, 13 Mar. Seminar 8: Why did the crusades against the Hussites fail?

Wk 7. 14 Mar. Lecture 17: Medieval heresy, witchcraft and magic;

Wk 8. 20 Mar. Lecture 18: Medieval witchcraft and magic;

Wk 8. 21 Mar. Seminar 9: Why were magic and astrology so popular in the middle ages?

Wk 9. Lecturer at a conference in the USA

Wk 10 3 Apr. Lecture 19: Heresy and the Reformation;

Wk 10 4 Apr. Seminar 10: In what ways did heresy and dissent change Europe?

Wk 11  10 Apr. Revision class

Easter vacation

Wk 12. Guided Study.


Sample Examination Paper

Cardiff University

DEGREE EXAMINATIONS

 

Assessment period:     Spring

Module Code:             HS1710

Module Title:              HERESY AND DISSENT, 1100–1450

Duration:                     2 hours

 

Structure of Examination Paper:

There are 2 pages

There are 10 questions in total.

Equal marks are obtainable for all questions.

 

Students to be provided with:

One answer book.

 

Instructions to and information for students:

 

Answer two questions.

 

YOU WILL BE PENALISED IF THERE IS SUBSTANTIAL OVERLAP BETWEEN YOUR EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND MATERIAL ALREADY USED IN ASSESSED COURSEWORK

The use of dictionaries in this examination is not allowed.

 

1. What problems face the modern historian who is attempting to identify the beliefs of medieval heretics?

 

2. ‘The problem of medieval heresy should not be approached in terms of the socio-economic origins of heretical psychology, or even in terms of the Church’s “repression of monastic and lay religious passion”… Instead, it should be thought out in terms of the social and ideological dangers encountered and dealt with by a developing, empire-building Church.’ (Talal Asad). Do you agree with this assessment of the origins of medieval heresy?

 

3. Why was Waldensianism so much more tenacious than other twelfth century wandering preacher movements?

 

4. Was Catharism more attractive to certain groups in society than to others?

 

5. Did the Albigensian Crusade achieve anything more than the domination of the Languedoc by the King of France?

 

6. Why and to whom was the heresy of the Free Spirit dangerous?

 

7. What, if anything, did Lollardy owe to Wycliffe?

 

8. To what extent was Hussitism a nationalist movement rather than a religious heresy?

 

9. What was the attraction of magic and astrology to certain groups in society in the medieval period?

 

10. To what extent were the Church and State successful in crushing medieval heresy?


SEMINARS

Seminars take place on Thursdays, in the weeks noted below. For a full Bibliography for each seminar, see http://learningcentral.cardiff.ac.uk at: 13/14-HS1710 HERESY & DISSENT 1000–1450, under ‘Bibliography’. Here only a selection of reading is noted.

 

First semester

(1) Wk 2: What is heresy? What did heretics believe?

 

Consider the document ‘Spot the Medieval heretic.’ Why are all the descriptions of heretics so similar – even though they are so widely separated geographically and chronologically?

  • Why were these charges selected – and not others?
  • What primary sources have you read which give evidence of what heretics believed?
  • What are the problems of using these sources? Are they accurate? The French Annales historian Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, in his book Montaillou (1978), used inquisitors’ reports to reconstruct the religious beliefs of French villagers. Can historians validly use this kind of evidence for this purpose?

For both sides of the argument, see: John H. Arnold, Inquisition and Power: Catharism and the confessing subject in medieval Languedoc (Philadelphia, 2001), BX1720.A7; John Arnold, ‘Inquisition, Texts and Discourse,’ in Texts and the Repression of Medieval Heresy, ed. Caterina Bruschi and Peter Biller (Woodbridge, 2003), pp. 63–80; Caterina Bruschi, The Wandering Heretics of Languedoc (Woodbridge, 2009), pp. 3–9 (very important).

  • How far did inquisitors invent the beliefs they ascribed to those accused of heresy?
  • How many of these ‘heretics’ were not heretics but political deviants, or something else? Why were they labelled by medieval commentators as ‘heretics’?

·         How can historians now attempt to establish what heretics actually believed? Are modern historians guilty of imposing modern labels on medieval heretics? See, e.g., Mark Pegg, ‘Historiographical essay: On Cathars, Albigenses and Good Men of Languedoc’, Journal of Medieval History, 27 (2001), 181–95; Mark Pegg, ‘Heresy, good men, and nomenclature’, in Heresy and the persecuting society in the Middle Ages: essays on the work of R.I. Moore, ed. Michael Frassetto (Leiden, 2006).

  • Andrew Roach, in his The Devil’s World, pp. 1–9, describes religion as a ‘service industry’ and medieval heretics as ‘consumers’ who chose a different service. What do you think of this analogy?
  • How would you define a heretic?

What are the modern equivalents of medieval heretics?

  • in actual fact: e.g. do evangelical heresies still exist?
  • what is the equivalent of heresy in society nowadays? – e.g. what is the modern equivalent of refusing to accept the state religion, now that most people do not believe in God? Is it the refusal to accept the authority of the state? – are terrorists the modern equivalent of heretics? Were heretics in the middle ages regarded as the equivalent of terrorists? Or are modern ‘far right’ religious fanatics a closer equivalent (such as the Norwegian mass-murderer Anders Behring Breivik) – or what?

 

General reading

·         Lambert, Medieval Heresy, ch.1;

·         Moore, Origins, ch.1;

·         Morris, Papal Monarchy, ch. 14;

·         Mundy, Europe in the High Middle Ages, ch. 14.

·         Norman Cohn, Europe’s Inner Demons, chs 3–4. BF1425.C6;

·         See Philosophy Now, vol. 56 (July/August 2006) for some discussion of this topic: in the library, or see the first article online under ‘course documentation’ on the Blackboard pages for this course.

 

Some primary sources

  • Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, p. 28, and nos 1–7, 8–18, 22–30, 31–40.
  • Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, nos 3, 6, 18, 19, 21, 25, 26, 32, 34, 35, 37, 38, 44b, 45–60.
  • Lollards of Coventry: 1486–1522, ed. and trans. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman Tanner, Camden Society 5th series vol. 23 (2003), e.g. pp. 72–3, Richard Gilmyn. DA20.C2.)
  • For the ‘Four articles of Prague’ summing up Hussite beliefs, see The Crusade Against Heretics in Bohemia, 1418–1437, trans. Thomas A. Fudge (Aldershot, 2002), DB2080.F8, doc. 39, pp. 83–4.

 

General reading on the effects of torture and harsh interrogation techniques: can we trust evidence about heretics that was extracted by torture?

 

Gisli H. Gudjonsson, The Psychology of Interrogations, Confessions and Testimony (New York: Wiley, 1992), pp. 205–59: HV8073.G8 (ground floor of ASSL) and Law Library 346.9112 G

Shane O’Mara, ‘Torturing the Brain’, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13.12 (2009), 497–500 (available online)

Melissa B. Russano, Christian A. Meissner, Fadia M. Narchet and Saul M. Kassim, ‘Investigating True and False Confessions within a Novel Experimental Paradigm’, Psychological Science, 16 (2005), 481–6 (available online)

Would it have been possible for inquisitors to have forced suspects to confess to heresies they had never believed?

 

 

(2) Wk 4: Why did heresy arise?

  • Who started heretical movements? What was their social standing? – were they peasants, poor but educated people, or leaders of society?
  • Why would heresy be attractive to certain groups? For example, can you see any reason why dualism (the basis of Catharism) would be attractive to the very wealthy?

(the bibliography on Learning Central for this seminar has some web links which may help you consider this question)

  • How far did the reforming papacy encourage heretics? (e.g., see the online tutorial)
  • Was heresy particularly attractive to women – or not? Was heresy attractive to university lecturers?
  • How far was heresy linked to families or to certain trades or manufacturers? How important were families and/or groups of trades-people or manufacturers (e.g. weavers) in the growth and stability of certain heresies?

On the basis of your answers to the questions above:

·         Do you think that the appearance of heresy in western Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries was a result of increasing trade?

·         Did the growth in towns encourage the growth of heresy?

·         Did the increase in education encourage heresy?

·         How far did the shortcomings of the Catholic Church encourage the growth of heresy?

·         Do you think that any other factors were important?

·         Do you think that the appearance of heresy indicated political discontent? social discontent? religious fervour?

  • Consider R. I. Moore’s theory of The Formation of a Persecuting Society. On what grounds does he argue that heresy was ‘invented’ by the Church and the State authorities as a means of consolidating their authority and extending their power?

What are the strengths of this theory? What are its shortcomings? How far does it convince you?

 

General Reading

  • Lambert, Medieval Heresy, ch. 3
  • Moore, Origins, esp. Appendix and chs 2–3, but also chs 4–8. For weavers, see the index.

Primary sources

  • Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, no. 8, pp. 143–6, 11, 22, 27, 30, 33. For clothmakers and weavers see pp. 96, 38, 672 n. 8, 723 n. 1
  • Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, nos 8–9, 11–16, 18–19, 31–34. For weavers, see pp. 25, 43, 80, 90, 104–5, 146. For Lambert le Bègue’s group see pp. 103–11.

Secondary sources

  • Talal Asad, ‘Medieval Heresy: An Anthropological View’, Social History, 11 (1986), 354–62.
  • Peter Biller and Anne Hudson, eds., Heresy and Literacy, 1000–1530 (Cambridge University Press, 1994) esp. pp.1–37. BT1319.H3
  • Peter Biller, ‘The Topos and reality of the heretic as illiteratus’, in his The Waldenses, 1170–1530 (Aldershot, 2001), 169–90.
  • Janet Nelson, ‘Society, Theodicy and the Origins of Heresy: Towards a Reassessment of the Medieval Evidence’, in Schism, Heresy and Religious Protest: Papers read at the tenth summer meeting and the eleventh winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History, 9 (1972). BR140.S8

 

TLTP Online tutorial: Tim Reuter, ‘The Papacy, Religious Change and Church Reform’. Find it via Learning Central, under ‘External Links’ or online via ‘Information for current students: History and Welsh History’: http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/share/currentstudents/history/index.html (near end of page)

 

Women and heresy versus women in orthodox religion

  • R. Abels and E. Harrison, ‘The Participation of Women in Languedocian Catharism’, Mediaeval Studies, 41 (1979), 215–251.
  • Malcolm Barber, ‘Women and Catharism’, article III in his Crusaders and Heretics: 12th–14th centuries, (Aldershot, 1995), BR270.B2
  • Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Montaillou, chs 12 and 16
  • Peter Biller, ‘Cathars and Material Women’, in Medieval Theology and the Natural Body, ed. Peter Biller and Alastair J. Minnis (Rochester: York Medieval Press, 1997), BT741.2.M3
  • Peter Biller, ‘The Common Woman in the Western Church in the Thirteeenth and Fourteenth Centuries’, in Women in the Church, ed. W. J. Sheils and Diana Wood, Studies in Church History, 27 (1990); BR140.S8
  • Brenda Bolton, ‘Mulieres Sanctae’, in Women in Medieval Society, ed. Susan Mosher Stuard (Philadelphia, 1976), HQ1143.W6
  • J. Coakley, ‘Gender and the Authority of friars: the Significance of Holy Women for 13th century Franciscans and Dominicans’, Church History, 60 (1991), 445–60
  • Fiona J. Griffiths, ‘Sibings and the Sexes within the Medieval Religious Life’, Church History, 77 (2008), 26–53

 

(3) Wk 7: Why did the Church and the State persecute heresy? How effective was repression of dissidents?

(a) How did heretics live their everyday lives? Think about the different heretics you’ve read about: Cathars, Waldensians, Free Spirits, any other groups; or the later heretics such as Lollards and Hussites. Would they have fitted into society?

Would they pay taxes to the king? (Did they acknowledge secular authority? Did they have private property?)

If they were summoned to court to answer for a crime, would they attend?

If they were summoned for military service, would they go?

Did they think that murder was acceptable? Did they respect human life?

Did they respect private property? Would they steal?

Would they agree with abortion, or would they oppose it?

If their next door neighbour needed help, do you think that a Cathar would help a non-Cathar?

If you threw a party, would you invite a heretic? And would they come?

 

b) What motivated inquisitors? Think about the reactions to heresy in the primary sources below.  Is it possible to understand why inquisitors acted against heretics? Look at Charles H. Haskins’s article on Robert le Bougre: why did he act as he did? Again, look at Norman Cohn, Europe’s Inner Demons, pp. 43–8 on Conrad of Marburg and ask the same question. Consider James Given’s work on how inquisitors operated in the Languedoc. See the Inquisitor Bernard Gui describing how inquisitors went about their work, translated in Paul Halsall’s Medieval Sourcebook at: http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/heresy2.asp

 

c) Was there a systematic approach to repressing heresy?

·                     How far were individual popes involved in persecutions? (Try looking up individual popes in the index of Lambert, Medieval Heresy, such as Alexander III, Innocent III, Gregory IX).

·                     Did the Church and State co-operate, or were they at loggerheads? Look at chapter 2 of Malcolm Barber, The Cathars, for co-operation between the local nobility and the Albigensian heretics in the south of France. Think about:

·                     Was the inquisitors’ reaction proportionate to the threat?

·                     Were inquisitors effective in stamping out heresy?

Essential reading: the articles by Kieckhefer and by Kelly in the list below.

 

Other questions to think about:

d) How necessary was repression?

·                     What benefits did the Church provide to society, and what positive impact did the Church have on society?

·                     In medieval society, who was responsible for care for the elderly, schools, care of the poor, medical care? Did heretics contribute to any of these services? If not, would heretical movements have damaged those who did perform these services?

(e) How effective was repression of heresy?

·                     Did the Church eradicate dissent, or did heresies survive? (Consider the Waldensians, Lollards and Hussites, and the Cathars in particular.)

·                     What would have been the most productive reaction to heresy?

 

Reading

(a) Reactions to heresy

  • Moore, Origins, esp. ch. 9.
  • M.Barber, ‘Propaganda in the Middle Ages’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 17 (1973), 42–57
  • R. I. Moore, ‘Popular Violence and Popular Heresy in Western Europe, c.1000–1179’, in Persecution and Toleration: papers read at the twenty-second summer meeting and the twenty-third winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. W.J. Sheils, Studies in Church History, 21 (1984), pp. 43–50. BR140.S8
  • J.A.F. Thomson, ‘Orthodox Religion and the Origins of Lollardy’, History, 74 (1989), esp. pp. 42–3

 

Primary sources

  • Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, pp. 5, 15, 79
  • Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, pp. 81, 93, 121 and nos 3B, 13, 15, 40, 42, 45A
  • Peters, Heresy and Authority, first section, on early Christian writers against heresy.

 

(b) Repression of heresy

  • Lambert, Medieval Heresy, esp. chs 6, 9, 10
  • Moore, Origins, chs 9–10.
  • Robert Bartlett, Trial by Fire and Water: the Medieval Judicial Ordeal (Oxford, 1986), Law Library (first floor of Arts and Social Studies Library), LAW 343.72 B.
  • Norman Cohn, Europe’s Inner Demons (1975, 1993) BF1425.C6, chs 3–4, esp. pp. 43–50.
  • Bernard Hamilton, The Medieval Inquisition (London, 1981), BX1712.H2.
  • James B. Given, Inquisition and Medieval Society: Power, Discipline, and Resistance in Languedoc (Ithaca, NY and London, 2001), BX1712.G4; and his article, ‘The Inquisitors of Languedoc and the Medieval Technology of Power’, American Historical Review, 94 (1989), 336–59, and on JSTOR
  • C. H. Haskins, ‘Robert le Bougre and the Beginnings of the Inquisition in Northern France,’ in his Studies in Medieval Culture (Oxford, 1929) D127.H2, originally published in The American Historical Review, 7 and 8 (1902), 437–57, 631–52 (available on JSTOR)
  • Henry Ansgar Kelly, ‘Inquisition and the Prosecution of Heresy: Misconceptions and Abuses’, Church History, 58 (1989), 439–51
  • Henry Ansgar Kelly, Inquisitions and Other Trial Procedures in the Medieval West (Aldershot, 2001), BV629.K3
  • Richard Kieckhefer, Repression of Heresy in Medieval Germany (Philadelphia, 1979), BX1745.G3.K
  • Richard Kieckhefer, ‘The Office of Inquisition and Medieval Heresy: the Transition from Personal to Institutional Jurisdiction’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 46 (1995), 36–61
  • Edward Peters, Torture (Oxford, 1985), HV8593.P3, ch. 2.
  • Andrew P. Roach, ‘Penance and the Making of the Inquisition in the Languedoc’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 52 (2001), 409–33. Also available online (NB: not on JSTOR)
  • Karen Sullivan, The Inner Lives of Medieval Inquisitors (Chicago, 2011), BX1713.S8

 

Primary sources

  • Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, no. 3 pp. 79–81, nos 4–7, 9–11, 13, 28, 29, 39–45
  • Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy: nos 1–7, 10, 22–23, 26–28
  • The Inquisitor’s Guide: A Medieval Manual on Heretics, by Bernard Gui; trans. and ed. Janet Shirley (Welwyn Garden City, 2006), BX1720.B3
  • Bernard Gui on how inquisitors went about their work: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/heresy2.asp

 

c) How effective was repression?

See also:

  • Margaret Aston, ‘Lollardy and the Reformation: Survival or Revival?’ History, 49 (1964), 149–70
  • Euan Cameron, The Reformation of the Heretics: the Waldenses of the Alps, 1480–1580 (Oxford, 1984), BX4881.2.C2

 

 

(4) Wk 9: The Waldensians

a) Who were the Waldensians?

  • How did the Waldensian movement begin? Look at the account of Waldes’s conversion (written in 1218) in the online Medieval Sourcebook: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/waldo1.asp (NB: despite the title of this article, there is no good evidence that Waldes’s first name was ‘Peter’). What did Waldes do after his change of lifestyle which marked him as different from other people?
  • The description of Waldensians by Caesarius of Heisterbach (written between 1220 and 1235: translation online at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/caesarius-heresies.asp) is a stereotype, but indicates how contemporaries viewed them. To judge from this text, what was the Waldensians’ most characteristic activity?
  • In 1254 Reinier Saccho or Sacconi, a Dominican inquisitor and former Cathar perfect, wrote a description of Waldensian beliefs (online at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/waldo2.asp) Bearing in mind that Reinier probably distorted these beliefs, how you do think that the Waldensians’ way of life differed from the everyday life of Catholics? What would have been different about them, if anything?
  • If Waldes had begun preaching a generation later, would he have been accepted by the Church? (Compare the fate of the Waldensians with the Humiliati: see Lambert, Medieval Heresy, pp. 100–103). How far do you think individual papal policy was responsible for the fate of heretics?

b) How did the Waldensian movement survive to the present day?

  • Why was the movement popular? – who joined?
  • Why was it savagely persecuted? – who regarded it as a danger? (Essential reading: Cohn, Europe’s Inner Demons, BF1425.C6, ch. 4, for the ‘demonization’ of the Waldensians. Robert Lerner, Heresy of the Free Spirit, BT1358.L3, is also useful; and see Tamar Herzig’s article on Bibliography page for this seminar on Learning Central: look out for material dating from before 1450)
  • How were the Waldensian Churches organised?
  • How did they survive persecution? – did their organisation or their way of life help them to survive?

 

Reading

Primary sources: see the websites above, and

  • Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, nos 30–38, 43, 52, and no. 55 pp. 386–404.
  • Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, nos 34, 40 (pp. 153–4) 39 (pp. 144–5).
  • Peters, Heresy and Authority, nos 23–27
  • The Inquisitor’s Guide, by Bernard Gui; trans. Janet Shirley – section on Waldensians.

 

General reading

  • Lambert, Medieval Heresy, chs 5, 8, 19
  • Moore, Origins, pp. 228–31
  • Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages, vol.2, pp. 452–85.
  • Biller and Hudson, Heresy and literacy, chapters 7–10.
  • Shulamith Shahar, Women in a Medieval Heretical Sect: Agnes and Huguette the Waldensians, trans. Yael Lotan (Woodbridge, 2001), BX4881.3.S4
  • Gabriel Audisio, The Waldensian Dissent: Persecution and Survival, c. 1170–c.1570                 (Cambridge, 1999), BX4881.2.A8
  • Gabriel Audisio, Preachers by Night: the Waldensian ‘Barbes’ (Leiden, 2006), BX4881.3.A8
  • Peter Biller, The Waldenses, 1170–1530: Between a Religious Order and a Church (Aldershot, 2001), BX4881.2.B4
  • Euan Cameron, The Reformation of the Heretics: the Waldenses of the Alps, 1480–1580 (Oxford, 1984), BX4881.2.C2
  • Euan Cameron, Waldenses: Rejections of Holy Church in Medieval Europe (Oxford and Malden, MA., 2000), BX4881.2.C2
  • Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages, 3rd edn. (London, 1970, etc.), BR270.C6, chs 2–3.
  • Mary A. Rouse and Richard H. Rouse, ‘The Schools and the Waldensians: a New Work by Durand of Huesca’, in Christendom and its Discontents, ed. Waugh and Diehl.

 

 

(5) Wk 11: Who were the Cathars? What did the Albigensian crusade achieve?

What did Cathars believe?

Read the description of these heretics by Caesarius of Heisterbach on Learning Central, under the Bibliography for this seminar. Can we believe his description? Think back to seminar 1, when we discussed the (un)reliability of medieval writers, and the assumptions of modern historians.

If Caesarius’s description is accurate, why was this, as he says, a ‘horrible heresy’?

What was attractive about this heresy?

Look at some modern writings on Cathar beliefs – by Barber, Lambert, or Pegg. Were these heretics’ austere lifestyle, their education and their myths attractive? Was the attraction that it wasn’t necessary to be a full member? Or did people drift into this heresy simply because it was a social movement – their family and friends belonged to it?

Why was it so important to wipe out this heresy?

Think about the factors we discussed in the first three seminars. What would the long-term impact of this heresy have been in southern France?

What did the Albigensian Crusade achieve?

a) What was the attraction of the Languedoc region for outsiders? What did the different parties hope for through the war, and what did they actually get? (List the different parties and decide what each of them gained).

(b) Was the crusade against the Cathars, or was it against all the people of the Languedoc – e.g. because, in effect, they had all aided and abetted heretics?

c) Was heresy stamped out? Was peace established?

d) What was the cultural and human cost of the campaign? What was the long-term impact of the crusade?

e) Who came out best from the crusade? Who came out worst?

 

Reading: see the Bibliography for seminar 5 on Learning Central. And especially:

Primary sources

  • Janet Shirley, trans., The Song of the Cathar Wars (Aldershot, 16), DC83.3.G8
  • Elizabeth Hallam, ed. and trans., Chronicles of the Crusades (London, 1989), Folio D161.1.C4, pp. 226–242.
  • The History of the Albigensian Crusade: Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay’s Historia Albigensis, trans. W.A. and M.D. Sibly (Woodbridge, 1998), DC83.2.P3
  • The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens: the Albigensian Crusade and its Aftermath, trans. W.A. and M.D. Sibly (Woodbridge, 2003), BX4891.3.W4
  • The description of the Cathars and the sack of Béziers is also in Caesarius of Heisterbach, The Dialogue on Miracles, trans. by H. von E. Scott and C. C. Swinton Bland,intro. G. G. Coulton (London, 1929), vol. 1, pp. 343–7, PA8295.C3.S2
  • The Inquisitor’s Guide, by Bernard Gui; trans. Janet Shirley – section on Cathars.

 

General reading

  • Lambert, Medieval Heresy, chs 6 and 7;
  • Gordon Leff, Heresy in the later middle ages: the relation of heterodoxy to dissent, c.1250–1400, 2 vols (1967, 1999), BT1315.L3, pp. 450–2.
  • Malcolm Barber, The Cathars, BX4891.2.B2
  • Malcolm Barber, ‘The Albigensian Crusades: Wars like any Other?’ in Dei gesta per Francos; crusade studies in honour of Jean Richard, ed. Michel Balard, Benjamin Z. Kedar and Jonathan Riley-Smith (Aldershot, 2001), D159.D3: pp. 45–55.
  • Michael D. Costen, The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade (Manchester, 1997), BX4891.2.C6
  • Elaine Graham-Leigh, The Southern French nobility and the Albigensian Crusade (Woodbridge, 2005), DC83.3.G7
  • Bernard Hamilton, The Albigensian Crusade, DC83.3.H2 and BX2470.H2.
  • Malcolm Lambert, The Cathars, BX4891.2.L2
  •  L. Marvin, The Occitan War (Cambridge, 2008) On order for library
  • J. Sumption, The Albigensian Crusade (London, 1978) – avoid chapter 2. DC83.3.S8
  • Walter Wakefield, Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition, DC611.L3.W2
  • There is a summary online at: http://www.the-orb.net/textbooks/crusade/albig.html

 

Second semester

 

(6) Wk 2: What was dangerous about the heresy of the Free Spirit?

a) What was the heresy of the Free Spirit?

‘An abominable sect of wicked men … and faithless women’. Look at the degrees issued by the Church Council of Vienne in 1311–12: http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Councils/ecum15.htm#can28. (You may have to go to http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Councils/ecum15.htm and then click on Decree 28). Note what the Council stated that the Beghards and Beguines believed.

Look at one or two of the primary sources below to see different views of these groups.

  • What characteristics would make ‘heretics of the free spirit’ a threat (and a threat to whom)?
  • were their beliefs antisocial or anarchic? (Different historians have different views on this one. You will have to decide what the ‘Free Spirits’ believed in order to answer this question. Can their beliefs be tightly defined? Go down the questions we asked in seminar 3 about heretical behaviour. Can you answer any of these for the Free Spirits?)
  • what sort of people were called ‘free spirits’? Why? Were these beliefs particularly attractive to women – or not? If not, why did leading churchmen believe that they were?
  • How many people were involved in the ‘free spirit’ movement?
  • was this heresy widespread in Catholic Europe, or in any particular areas?
  • how did heretics of the Free Spirit actually behave – did they start revolts or murder people? Did their actions follow their supposed beliefs?
  • Were all Beguines and Beghards equally dangerous? If not, which were most dangerous?

b) Other possible motivations for repression:

  • Could there have been political motivation for repressing this heresy?
  • or financial motivation?
  • was the problem purely a clash of religious ideology?
  • Was the problem exaggerated by the Church or state authorities for political ends? If you believe that it was, find examples.

Reading

Primary sources

  • Marguerite Porete, The Mirror of Simple Souls, trans. E. L. Babinsky (New York, 1993) (and there are also other translations available in the library) BV5091.C7.P2. Compare to:
  • Meister Eckhart, in Meister Eckhart, Teacher and Preacher, ed. Bernard McGinn (New York, 1986), B765.E32.M2
  • ‘The Sister Catherine Treatise’, in Bernard McGinn, Meister Eckhart, Teacher and Preacher, pp. 10–14, 349–87
  • Mechthild of Magdeburg , The Flowing Light of the Godhead, trans. Frank Tobin (New York, 1998) BV5091.V6.M3.
  • Peters, Heresy and Authority, sections 7–8
  • The Inquisitor’s Guide, by Bernard Gui; trans. Janet Shirley – section on Beguins/Beguines.

General reading

·         Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium, chs 8 and 9

·         Sean L. Field, ‘The Master and Marguerite: Godfrey of Fontaines’ praise of The Mirror of Simple Souls’, Journal of Medieval History, 35 (2009), 136–49

·         Lambert, Medieval Heresy, chs 10 and 11, and pp. 202–5

·         Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages, vol.1, ch. 4.

  1. Lerner, The Heresy of the Free Spirit, pp. 71–8, 182–6, 215–21 and see his article ‘New light on The Mirror of Simple Souls’, in Speculum, 85:1 (2010) 91–116

 

 

(7) Wk 4: In what sense, if any, were the Lollards revolutionaries?

a) Why were people attracted to Lollardy?

  • What sort of people became Lollards – in what areas? Was it particularly attractive to women – or not? Was it particularly attractive to any definable group in society?
  • How were Lollards organised? How did they spread their beliefs?
  • Did this make them a threat to the government?
  • Why did persecution take so long to develop?

b) What were their beliefs?

Let’s go back to some of the questions we had earlier in the course.

Did Lollards pay taxes to the king? (Did they acknowledge secular authority? Did they have private property?)

If they were summoned to court to answer for a crime, would they attend?

If they were summoned for military service, would they go?

Did they respect private property? Would they steal?

Would they agree with abortion, or would they oppose it?

If their next door neighbour needed help, do you think that a Lollardwould help a non-Lollard?

If you threw a party, would you invite a Lollard? And would they come if you did?

 

Now think about the Lollards’ attitude to pilgrimages; to images in churches; to the eucharist; to saints.

  • How closely did they follow Wycliffe’s teachings?
  • What was their role in the Revolt of 1381?
  • Did they believe in revolution?
  • If so, did this make them a threat to the government?
  • Why did persecution take so long to develop?

c) Some individuals

·         Who was Margery Kempe, and why was she accused of Lollardy? See her autobiography, The Book of Margery Kempe, trans. B. A. Windeatt PR2007.K3.B6 (other translations are also available), and look up ‘Margery Kempe’ in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online (one of the University’s databases), on Voyager and in the International Medieval Bibliography database. There is also some reading on Margery Kempe on Learning Central, unde r the Bibliography for the seminar.

·         Who was Walter Brut and why was he tried for heresy? There is a selection of reading on Walter Brut on Learning Central, under the Bibliography for this seminar

 

Reading

General reading

·         Norman Cohn, Pursuit of the Millennium, ch. 11 first part.

·         Lambert, Medieval Heresy, chs 12–13 and 19

·         Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages, vol. 2, chs 7 and 8

·         John Arnold, ‘Lollard Trials and Inquisitorial Discourse’, in C. Given-Wilson, ed., Fourteenth-Century England II (Boydell, 2003), pp. 81-94 – compares persecution of Lollards with persecution of Cathars in France.

·         Margaret Aston, ‘Corpus Christi and Corpus Regni: Heresy and the Peasants’ Revolt’, Past and Present, 143 (1994), 3–47: also available online from JSTOR

·         Margaret Aston, ‘Lollardy and Sedition’, in Peasants, Knights and Heretics: Studies in Medieval English Social History, ed. Rodney Hilton (Cambridge, 1976), HC254.H4 and in Past and Present, 17 (1960), 1–44: also available online from JSTOR

·         Alcuin Blamires, ‘The Wife of Bath and Lollardy’, Medium Aevum, 58.2 (1989), 224–42

·         Anne Hudson, ‘The Mouse in the Pyx: Popular Heresy and the Eucharist’, Trivium, 26 (1991), 40–53

·         Kathleen Kamerick, Popular piety and art in the late Middle Ages: image worship and idolatry in England, 1350-1500 (New York, 2002), BR750.K2 – discusses the Lollard attitude to images of saints.

·         Sharron McSheffrey, Gender and Heresy: Women and Men in Lollard Communities 1420–1530 (Philadelphia, 1995), BX4901.2.M2.

·         Richard Rex, The Lollards (Basingstoke and New York, 2002), BX4901.2.R3

·         J. A. F. Thomson, ‘Orthodox Religion and the Origins of Lollardy’, History, 74 (1989)

Primary sources

 

 

(8) Wk 7: To what extent were the Hussites successful? Why did the Crusades against the Hussites fail?

A handout of sources for this seminar should be available on Learning Central.

a) What problems did the crusaders face? Consider problems of their own making; problems posed by the Hussites; other external factors.

Could the problem of the Hussites have been better solved in another way?

b) What did the Hussites set out to achieve?

What were the Hussites’ strengths?

What were their weaknesses?

Why did Hussitism never spread outside Bohemia?

So: how far were the Hussites successful?

 

Reading

General reading

  • Lambert, Medieval Heresy, chs 15–18
  • Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages, vol.2, ch. 9.
  • Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium, ch. 11.
  • Thomas A. Fudge, The Magnificent Ride: The First Reformation in Hussite Bohemia (Aldershot and Brookfield, VT, 1998), BX4915.2.F8
  • Thomas A. Fudge, Jan Hus (London, 2010), on order
  • Frederick G. Heymann, John Zizka and the Hussite Revolution (Princeton, 1955), DB208.H3.
  • G. A. Holmes, ‘Cardinal Beaufort and the Crusade against the Hussites’, English Historical Review, 88 (1973), 721–50 and online at JSTOR
  • Norman Housley, The Later Crusades, 1274–1580: from Lyons to Alcazar (Oxford, 1992), D171.H6, pp. 249–259.
  • Norman Housley, ‘The Crusading Movement, 1274–1700’, in The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith (Oxford, 1995), pp. 281–283. D157.O9
  • J. Klassen, ‘The Disadvantaged and the Hussite Revolution’, International Review of Social History, 35 (1990), 249–72
  • John M. Klassen, Warring Maidens, Captive Wives and Hussite Queens: Women and Men at War and at Peace in fifteenth century Bohemia (Boulder, 1999), DB2098.K5
  • Gordon Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages: section on Hussites.
  • F. Smahel, ‘John Hus, Heretic or Patriot?’ History Today, 40 April (1990), 27–33

 

Primary sources

·         Peters, Heresy and Authority, section 10, nos 61–63.

·         Crowder, Unity, Heresy and Reform, docs 14, 15, 16, 28.

·         The Crusade Against Heretics in Bohemia, 1418–1437, trans. Thomas A. Fudge (Aldershot, 2002), DB2080.F8, esp. doc. 39, pp. 83–4: Four Articles of Prague

·         The very pretty chronicle of John Zizka’, ch. 1 of: Frederick G. Heymann, John Zizka and the Hussite Revolution (Princeton, 1955), DB208.H3.

·         Documents on the Later Crusades, 1274–1580, trans. Norman Housley (Basingstoke, 1996), D171.D6; nos 37–42

 

 

(9) Wk 8: Why were magic and astrology so popular in the middle ages?

a) What was magic?

What was the purpose of magic and astrology?

Was magic necessarily viewed as ‘bad’?

Who would find magic or astrology ‘useful’?

b) Who became involved in magic? Why did certain groups become involved in or accused of magic:

  • midwives
  • the clergy
  • university scholars?

c) Was magic taken seriously? To answer this question, consider:

  • references to magic in romance literature;
  • accusations of witchcraft;
  • the production of magical treatises.

d) Why did accusations of witchcraft increase from the 13th century onwards?

 

Reading

There are some sources online at:

http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/culture/magwitch/magic.html

 

General reading

·         Norman Cohn, Europe’s Inner Demons (London and Chicago, 1975, 1993 and 2000), BF1425.C6, etc. (NB ‘BF’ is on the ground floor of the library)

·         Bernard Hamilton, Religion in the Medieval West, ch. 17.

·         Richard Kieckhefer, Magic in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1989 and 2000), BF1593.K4.

·         Richard Kieckhefer, European Witch Trials: their Foundations in Popular and Learned Culture, 1300–1500 (London, 1976), BF1565.K4

·         Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic, ed. Claire Fanger (Stroud, 1998), BF1593.C6.

·         Richard Kieckhefer, Forbidden Rites: a Necromancer’s Manual of the Fifteenth Century (Stroud, 1997), BF1593.K4

·         H. Kelly, ‘English Kings and Fears of Sorcery’, Mediaeval Studies, 39 (1977), 206–38

·         A. Neary, ‘The Origins and Character of the Kilkenny Witchcraft case of 1324’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy Section C, 83 (1983), 333–50

·         The Inquisitor’s Guide, by Bernard Gui; trans. Janet Shirley – section on sorcery

 

Medieval science

  • Lyndy Abraham, A Dictionary of Alchemical Imagery (Cambridge, 2001), PN56.A44.A2
  • Charles Talbot, ‘Elexir of Youth,’ in Chaucer and Middle English Studies in honour of Rossell Hope Robbins ed. Beryl Rowland (London, 1974), PR251.C4 – on alchemy.
  • Jim Tester, A History of Western Astrology (Woodbridge, 1987), BF1671.
  • C. Butler, Number Symbolism (London, 1970), PN56.N8.B8
  • John Larner, Italy in the Age of Dante and Petrarch, 1216–1380 (London, 1980), DG531.L2. See ch. 2, especially pt. 1, on an emperor’s interest in astrology.

 

 

(10) Wk 10: In what ways did heresy and dissent change Europe?

This is a far-reaching question which will require you to consider every aspect of the course.

How far did heresy and dissent contribute towards revolts? (Think about the ‘Peasants’ Revolt’ in Britain and the Hussite Revolution; but you should also look up other revolts, such as the Jacquerie in France in 1358 and the revolt of the Ciompi in Florence in 1378.)

Suggested reading includes:

·         William M. Bowsky, ‘The Medieval Commune and Internal Violence: Police Power and Public Safety in Siena, 1287–1355’, American Historical Review, 73 (1967), 1–17

·         Gene A. Brucker, ‘The Florentine Populo Minuto and its political role’, in Violence and civil disorder in Italian cities, 1200-1500, ed. Lauro Martines (Berkeley, 1972), pp. 155–83, DG530.V4

·         Gene A. Brucker, ‘The Ciompi Revolution’, in Florentine studies : politics and society in Renaissance Florence, ed. Nicolai Rubinstein (London: 1968), pp. 314–56: DG737.4.R8

·         Samuel Kline Cohn, Popular protest in late medieval Europe: Italy, France, and Flanders (Manchester, 2004), HN11.P6

·         R. B. Dobson, The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381, 2nd edn (London,  1983 ), DA235.P3

·         R. H Hilton and T. H Aston, The English Rising of 1381 (Cambridge, 1984),: DA235.E6

·         R. H. Hilton, Bond Men made Free: Medieval Peasant Movements and the English Rising of 1381 (London ,1988), Short Loan : DA235.H4

·         John M. Najemy, A History of Florence 1200–1575 (Malden, MA, 2006), DG737.4.N2, esp. pp. 156–87.

·         Richard C. Trexler, ‘Follow the Flag: The Ciompi Revolt seen from the Streets’, Bibliothèque d'humanisme et Renaissance : Travaux et documents, 46.2 (1984), pp. 357–92: Humanities Journal in the Arts and Social Studies Library

and use the University Library catalogue to find additional reading.

How far did heresy and dissent contribute to the growth of bureaucratic government? (e.g., consider R. I. Moore’s book The Formation of the Persecuting Society)

How far did heresy and dissent contribute to the growth of education and the individual?

Or to the growth of nationalism and national governments?

… Did it contribute to the Reformation of the 16th century?

… Can you think of any other changes which were brought about?

Or, were its detractors correct – did heresy lead to the destruction of European society?

 

(11) Wk 11: Revision

a) Produce a summary of the course, isolating the important themes.

b) Produce one exam question to test one aspect of the course.

c) Produce a summary answer to this question.

In class, students will exchange questions and attempt to answer the question set, or at least to say how they would go about answering it. They should also consider: is this a fair question? What does it set out to test? Does it do this effectively?

The objective of this exercise is to help you to think more deeply about:

a) the overall course content;

b) how examination questions are set, to help you understand how to spot what the examiner wants and how to go about answering questions. There will also be an opportunity to discuss any aspects of the course which are causing you difficulties.


Assessed 1,000-word essay

 

Write on one of the following six extracts from primary sources relating to heresy. You should write around 1000 words and include full references and a bibliography. You should:

  • set the text in context: who was the writer? when was it written? Why was it written? You may have to do a little detective work, put evidence together and make deductions.
  • identify or explain any individuals, places, incidents or doctrines named;
  • answer the question given with the extract;
  • explain the significance of this extract for our understanding of medieval heresy and/or the repression of medieval heresy.

In researching your answer, first look up the extract in the book given as the source of reference and read the whole of the piece from which the extract is taken, and the introduction to that piece. This should give you the context and will suggest further avenues of investigation. Suggestions for additional reading are given after each extract, but you will normally find information in Lambert, Medieval Heresy, and (for the first 3 extracts) in Moore, Origins of European Dissent. For additional guidance on writing primary source analyses, see the Blackboard page for this course, under ‘Assignments’.

This essay should be handed in, following the same procedures as for assessed work, before or on the date specified in the Year Two Handbook for History & Welsh History.

 

 

1. … he no longer preached in hidden places and in bedrooms but upon the rooftops and delivered his sermons in the open fields to a multitude thronging about him on all sides. He put on the pomp of a monarch going out to harangue the people, attended by a retinue who bore banner and sword before him as though he went forward to speak amidst royal trappings. On his words the deluded people hung as if he were an angel of God. But he, being in fact the angel of Satan, proclaimed that the churches of God were to be reckoned as houses of ill repute, that the function of priests at the Lord’s table was worthless, fit rather to be called pollution than sacrament, that the efficacy of the sacraments depends on the merits and sanctity of the ministers.

‘The Heresy of Tanchelm’ from Wakefield and Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages, no. 8a, p. 98; another translation in Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, p. 29. 

(See the reading for seminar 2, especially Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, no. 9, and the other works of R. I. Moore; and look up ‘Tanchelm’ in Lambert, Medieval Heresy, and Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium (1970), BR270.C6. Lambert, p. 58, points out that some of the information in this document appears to have been ‘borrowed’ from the 6th-century writer Gregory of Tours, The History of the Franks, Bk. 10 ch. 25!)

 

Who was Tanchelm and why was he regarded by some interests (who?) as a threat to society?

 

 

2. In the course of the same year (that is, 1173) of our Lord’s incarnation, there was at Lyons in Gaul a certain citizen named Waldes, who had amassed a great fortune through the wicked practice of lending at interest. One Sunday he had been attracted by the crowd gathered around a minstrel and was touched by the latter’s words. Wishing to talk to him more fully, he took him to his home ... On the following morning, the said citizen hastened to the school of theology to seek counsel for his soul’s welfare.

‘The origins of the Waldensian heresy’, from Wakefield and Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages, p. 201.

(See reading list for seminar 4,‘The Waldensians’, and look up Waldes in Lambert, Medieval Heresy, and Moore, Origins. N.B.: ‘the ‘Chronicon universale anonymi Laudunensis’ is ‘The anonymous Universal Chronicle of Laon’. You may compare this description of Waldes and his religion to Stephen of Bourbon’s account in Wakefield and Evans, pp,. 208–10.)

What does this story tell us about the beginning of the most successful heresy of the Middle Ages? Is it believable, or could it simply be a myth?

 

 

3. On the Evil principle. — For this reason, in the opinion of the wise it is firmly to be believed that there is another principle, one of evil, who is mighty in iniquity, from whom the power of Satan and of darkness and all other powers which are inimical to the true Lord God are exclusively and essentially derived … Otherwise, it would seem obvious to these same [wise] persons that this Divine Might struggles, destroys and wars against itself.’

‘The Book of the Two Principles (Part IV)’ from Wakefield and Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages, no. 59, para. 7; p. 556.

(See the articles on the Cathars’ books in Peter Biller and Anne Hudson, Heresy and Literacy (1994), chs 1, 4, 5: BT1319.H3. Look  up Cathar doctrine and the Liber de duobus principiis (i.e., the book this extract is taken from) in Malcolm Barber, The Cathars, esp. pp. 81–93, and Malcolm Lambert, The Cathars, esp. pp. 158–65, 194–205. Look on the Blackboard pages for this course under ‘Bibliography’: the reading for lecture 9, ‘Cathars and Dualism’.)

 

How significant were ‘the two principles’ of good and evil to Cathar beliefs? How could these beliefs have made Catharism an attractive religion?

 

 

4. Also why would such souls feel guilty about taking what is necessary if necessity asks it? For these Souls, this would be to damage the innocence and to encumber the peace in which such a Soul rests from all such things.Who would make their conscience guilty about taking the necessities from the four elements, such as light from heaven, warmth from fire, dew from the water, and from the earth what sustains us?

Marguerite Porete, The Mirror of Simple Souls, trans. Babinsky, p. 100.

(See reading for seminar 6 and on the Blackboard pages for this course under ‘Bibliography’, lecture 12, ‘The Heresy of the Free Spirit’. See in particular Lerner, The Heresy of the Free Spirit (1972), BT1358.L3.)

 

What was the significance of this statement for Marguerite’s own doctrine and for her fate? Why was this doctrine regarded as dangerous by the secular and ecclesiastical authorities?

 

 

5. You who are the warriors of God

            And of His Law,

            Pray for God’s help

            And believe in Him

            So you will with Him always remain victorious.

‘Zizka’s battle song’, from F. G. Heymann, John Zizka and the Hussite Revolution (Princeton, 1955), p. 497; also The Crusade Against Heretics in Bohemia, 1418–1437, trans. Thomas A. Fudge (Aldershot, 2002), p. 66.

(See reading for seminar 8, and on the Blackboard pages for this course under ‘Bibliography’ see lectures 15 and 16: ‘The Hussites’.)

 

How far does this song sum up Hussite beliefs? What were the implications of these beliefs for Hussite success?

 

 

6. He stood with his astrolabe on the tower of the commune, waiting, so it was said, for the ascent of the first phase or horoscope of Leo, believing Jupiter to be within it. But since, through overhanging clouds, he could not examine it with the astrolabe, he was deceived in his election. For Jupiter was not in Leo nor was Leo in the ascendant, but Virgo, and since Scorpio was then in the third house of its progress neither the army nor emperor were permitted to create offence.

Rolandino of Padua on Master Theodore the astrologer, quoted by John Larner, Italy in the Age of Dante and Petrarch: 1216–1380, p. 18.

(See reading for seminar 9, and on the Blackboard pages for this course under ‘Bibliography’ see lectures 17 and 18, ‘Medieval witchcraft and magic’. See also David Abulafia, Frederick II, pp. 261–3).

 

Why was Rolandino of Padua so dismissive of Master Theodore? Who was Master Theodore’s employer, and what was the significance of this episode? What was the importance of astrology at the royal and papal courts of medieval Europe?


ASSESSED ESSAY (2,000 words)

 

  • Write an essay on one of the following topics. Essays, which should be no longer than 2,000 words, not including footnotes and bibliography, must be handed in following the procedures laid down in the Year 2 Handbook, by one of the dates given. DO NOT write your name on the essay; write only your student number.
  • NB: the tutor’s mark is provisional and may be revised by the external examiner. Take care to acknowledge your sources. The use of other scholars’ words or ideas without acknowledgement will be severely penalised.
  • Detailed bibliographies for these questions are available on Blackboard, at http://learningcentral.cardiff.ac.uk under 13/14-HS1710 HERESY & DISSENT 1000–1450, ‘Bibliography’.

 

1. What motivated inquisitors of heresy?

Consider the reading and discussion for seminar 3.

 

2. How far was Henry the Monk (Henry of Lausanne, Henry of Le Mans) simply a Church reformer who went too far in his demands?

Your answer should cite the documents describing Henry’s career in Wakefield and Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages, nos 11–12, 14, R. I. Moore, The Birth of Popular Heresy, nos 11–16, and/or E. Peters, Heresy and Authority in the Middle Ages, no. 11. See Lambert, Medieval Heresy, and Moore, Origins of European Dissent; the reading for seminar 2, and the on-line tutorial on papal reform for the reform movement in general (via ‘External Links’ on Learning Central).

 

3. What was the importance of Waldes to medieval heresy and the Waldensian movement?.

This question is not only about Waldes but also about what happened after his death. See Lambert, Medieval Heresy, pp. 70–85 and ch. 8; Wakefield and Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages, pp. 50–53 and 272–3, 278–89 for changes after his death; and see Peter Biller, ‘Medieval Waldensians’ construction of the past’, in his The Waldenses, 1170–1530 (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 191–206. See also the reading on the Learning Central pages under ‘Bibliography’ for seminar 4, including the works by Gabriel Audisio and Euan Cameron.

 

4. To what extent were family influence and family ties responsible for the durability of Catharism?

See Lambert, Medieval Heresy; Moore, Origins; on Learning Central under ‘Bibliography’ see the general reading for lecture 9 on dualism and Catharism; see particularly E. Le Roy Ladurie, Montaillou (1978), HN438.M6.L3; J. Mundy, Studies in the ecclesiastical and social history of Toulouse in the age of the Cathars (2006), BR844.M8; J. Mundy, Men and women at Toulouse in the age of the Cathars (1990), HQ1147.F7.M8; C. Taylor, Heresy in medieval France: dualism in Aquitaine and the Agenais (London, 2005) BX4891.2.T2; look also at the material on women in seminar 2, esp. Barber, ‘Women and Catharism’, and the important article by Abels and Harrison. Remember to analyse these secondary sources critically.

 

5. Why and to whom was Marguerite Porete dangerous?

See Lambert, Medieval Heresy, and the reading on the Learning Central pages under ‘Bibliography’ for lecture 12 and seminar 6; your answer should cite Marguerite’s own writings.

 

6. What was the impact of the works of Joachim of Fiore?

See Lambert, Medieval Heresy, and the reading on the Learning Central pages under ‘Bibliography’ for lecture 11, ‘Joachimism and Spiritual Franciscans’

 

7. Why were the Spiritual Franciscans condemned as heretics?

See Lambert, Medieval Heresy, and the reading on the Learning Central pages under ‘Bibliography’ for lecture 11, ‘Joachimism and Spiritual Franciscans’

 

 

8. ‘You are a false strumpet, a false Lollard and a false deceiver of the people’ (the mayor of Leicester addressing Margery Kempe in her Book, ch. 46). Why did Margery Kempe arouse such hostility?

Read Margery’s autobiography, The Book of Margery Kempe, trans. B. A. Windeatt – arguably the earliest autobiography in English. Look at primary sources on Lollardy. See Lambert, Medieval Heresy, chs 12–13, and on the Learning Central pages for this course under ‘Bibliography’ see the reading for lectures 13 and 14 on Wycliffe and on the Lollards, esp. Shannon McSheffrey, Gender and Heresy. For further reading, search for ‘Margery Kempe’ on Voyager.

 

9. Why was the Welshman Walter Brut tried for heresy at Hereford in the 1390s?

See the reading for Walter Brut under ‘Bibliography’ for lectures 13 and 14, on Learning Central, and the general reading on Lollardy to give you the context.

 

10. To what extent were the medieval universities responsible for the growth and propagation of heresy?

(Consider not only the universities as institutions but the individuals within them.) On the Learning Central pages for this course under ‘Bibliography’, see the reading on universities for lecture 7, and on Wycliffe and Hus under lectures 13–15. Some knowledge of medieval universities would be useful: e.g. Alan B. Cobban, The Medieval English Universities: Oxford and Cambridge to c.1500 (Aldershot, 1988), LF511.C6; A. B. Cobban, The Medieval Universities: their Development and Organization (London, 1975), LA627.C6.

 


BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

This list does not contain all possible books and articles. If you require further reading, search for further reading using online databases such as the International Medieval Bibliography and Iter. Course books can be ordered via: http://www.readinglists.co.uk/rsl/index.dfp/rsl/student/sviewlist.dfp?id=9940

 

General reading

 

The basic course text is:

 

  1. Malcolm Lambert, Medieval Heresy: Popular Movements from the Gregorian Reform to the Reformation (Blackwells, 2002), BT1319.L2. The third edition is best, but you may also use the first and second editions. This is the book to buy.

 

Also useful:

 

  1. R. I. Moore, The Origins of European Dissent (1977: reprinted University of Toronto Press, 1994). BT1315.M6. Covers the earlier part of the course.

 

  1. Gordon Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages: the Relation of Heterodoxy to Dissent, c.1250–1400, 2 vols (Manchester: Manchester U.P., 1967) BT1315.L3. Covers the later part of the course.

 

  1. Andrew P. Roach, The Devil’s World: Heresy and Society, 1100–1300 (Harlow, 2005), BT 1319.R6

 

  1. Schism, Heresy and Religious Protest: Papers read at the tenth summer meeting and the eleventh winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History, 9 (1972). BR140.S8

 

Source books:

 

  1. Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages (New York: Columbia U.P., 1991). A very useful source book, but it covers only the period to 1325 (so it doesn’t cover the Lollards and the Hussites). BT1319.H3. The older edition is also satisfactory.

 

  1. R. I. Moore, The Birth of Popular Heresy (London: Arnold, 1975). Sourcebook. Central BT1315.M6

 

  1. Edward Peters, Heresy and Authority in Medieval Europe: Documents in Translation (London: Scolar Press, 1980) – documents in translation. BT1315.H3

 

  1. C.M.D. Crowder, Unity, Heresy and Reform 1378–1460: the Conciliar Response to the Great Schism (London: Edward Arnold, 1977), BX1270.C7

 

Shorter general overviews:

 

  1. Colin Morris, The Papal Monarchy: the Western Church from 1050 to 1250 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1989), BR270.M6: ch. 14 ‘Dissent.’

 

  1. John Hine Mundy, Europe in the High Middle Ages, 1150–1309 (Harlow: Longman, 1973), ch.14: ‘Heresy and Enthusiasm.’ D201.8.M8

 

Other studies

 

  1. Scott L. Waugh and Peter D. Diehl, Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution and Rebellion, 1000–1500 (Cambridge University Press, 1996), part 1. BT1315.2.C4

 

  1. Texts and the Repression of Medieval heresy, ed. Caterina Bruschi and Peter Biller (Woodbridge, Suffolk; Rochester, NY: York Medieval Press with Boydell Press, 2003), BT1319.T3

 

See also the following websites:

The Internet medieval sourcebook at http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/sbook1s.asp#Medieval Heresy for sources on Waldensians, Cathars, the Inquisition, Lollardy and Hussites

The online reference book for medieval studies at: http://www.the-orb.net/

e.g, http://www.the-orb.net/textbooks/nelson/heresies.html – an introductory essay

 

For the context:

 

  1. Malcolm Barber, The Two Cities: Medieval Europe 1050–1320 (London: Routledge, 1992 and 2004).

 

  1. Bernard Hamilton, Religion in the Medieval West (London: Edward Arnold, 1986; second edition 2003), BR738.2.H2 – a useful general guide.

 

  1. R. W. Southern, Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970), Section 7. BR252.S6

 


 

FIRST SEMESTER

PART ONE: OVERVIEW

 

 

1: Lecture 1 and Seminar 1: What is heresy? What did heretics believe?

 

General reading:

See Lambert, Medieval Heresy, ch.1;

Moore, Origins, ch.1;

Morris, Papal Monarchy, ch. 14;

Mundy, Europe in the High Middle Ages, ch. 14

Roach, The Devil’s World, introduction.

 

Some primary sources:

Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, p. 28 (introductory section): Pope Calixtus II defines heresy, 1119.

 

Document to be handed out in class: Spot the medieval heretic.

 

 

See also:

Malcolm Barber, ‘Propaganda in the Middle Ages: the Charges against the Templars’, in Nottingham Medieval Studies, 17 (1973), 42–57: pp. 45–7 has other descriptions of heresy which look very similar to those in Spot the medieval heretic.

 

For another sort of heretic, see Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, no.18, or Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, nos 18–19 (Eon); and Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, no.19 or Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, nos 20–21 (Arnold of Brescia).

For the beliefs of 11th and 12th century heresies see Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, nos 3–6, 21, 25, 26, 32, 34, 35, 37, 38, 44b; or Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, nos 1–7, 8–17, 22–30, 31–40.

For thirteenth and early fourteenth-century heretical groups, see Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, nos 45–60.

 

For Lollards, see Lollards of Coventry: 1486–1522, ed. and trans. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman Tanner, Camden Society 5th series vol. 23 (2003), e.g. pp. 72–3, Richard Gilmyn. DA20.C2

 

For the ‘Four articles of Prague’ summing up Hussite beliefs, see The Crusade Against Heretics in Bohemia, 1418–1437, trans. Thomas A. Fudge (Aldershot, 2002), DB2080.F8, doc. 39, pp. 83–4.

 

See also

Examples of different movements which were labelled ‘heretical’:

 

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Crusade of the Shepherds in 1251’, article no. IX in his Crusaders and Heretics (Aldershot, 1995), BR270.B2

See also: Malcolm Barber, ‘The pastoureaux of 1320’, no. V in the same;

Malcolm Barber, ‘Lepers, Jews and Moslems: the Plot to overthrow Christendom in 1321’, no. IV in the same.

 

  1. Elizabeth Kennan, ‘Innocent III, Gregory IX, and Political crusades: a Study in the Disintegration of Papal Power’, in Reform and Authority in the Medieval and Reformation Church, ed. G. F. Lytle (1981), PHOTOCOPY COLLECTION.

 

  1. Walter Map, De Nugis Curialium, ed. M. R. James, C.N.L. Brooke and R. A. B. Mynors (O.U.P., 1983), PA8380, pp. 56–7; mercenaries as heretics.

 

  1. J. F. Verbruggen, The Art of Warfare in Western Europe During the Middle Ages: from the eighth century to 1340, trans. Sumner Willard et al. (Woodbridge, 1997), p. 141; on the same. D128.V3.

 

  1. Peter Biller, ‘Medicine and Heresy’, in Religion and Medicine in the Middle Ages, ed. Peter Biller and Joseph Ziegler (Woodbridge, 2001), BX1795.H4.R3

 

  1. Michael Frassetto, Heretic Lives: Medieval Heresy from Bogomil and the Cathars … (London, 2007)

 

  1.  Karen Sullivan, Truth and the heretic: crises of knowledge in medieval French literature (Chicago, 2005), PQ155.H37.S8: what is heresy, anyway?

 

Were supposed ‘heretical’ beliefs actually invented by the inquisitors?

 

John Arnold, ‘Inquisition, Texts and Discourse,’ in Texts and the Repression of Medieval Heresy, ed. Caterina Bruschi and Peter Biller (Woodbridge, 2003), pp. 63–80. BT1319.T3

Caterina Bruschi, The Wandering Heretics of Languedoc (Woodbridge, 2009), pp. 3–9. ON ORDER

Mark Pegg, ‘Historiographical essay: On Cathars, Albigenses and Good Men of Languedoc’, Journal of Medieval History, 27 (2001)

Mark Pegg, ‘Heresy, good men, and nomenclature’, in Heresy and the persecuting society in the Middle Ages: essays on the work of R.I. Moore, ed. Michael Frassetto (Leiden, 2006), BT1319.H3

 

 

2: Lectures 3 and 4; Seminar 2: The attraction of heresy and why heresy appeared

 

See Lambert, Medieval Heresy, ch. 3; and Moore, Origins, esp. Appendix and chs 2–3, also chs 4–8.

 

See primary sources in Wakefield and Evans, Heresies and Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, especially

  1. Tanchelm, in Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, no. 8. Also in Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, nos 8–9.
  2. William of Newburgh, History of English affairs in Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, pp. 143–6; and in Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, above, nos 18 and 19: the heretic Eon.
  3. Henry of le Mans, in Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, no. 11, and Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, nos 11–16.
  4. The Humiliati: in Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, no. 22
  5. Yves of Narbonne, in Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, no.27
  6. Lambert le Blègue, Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, nos 31–33
  7. Waldes, in Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, no. 30 and no. 33; and in Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, no. 34.

 

Secondary sources

 

  1. Talal Asad, ‘Medieval Heresy: An Anthropological View’, Social History, 11 (1986), 354–62.

 

  1. Peter Biller and Anne Hudson, eds., Heresy and Literacy, 1000–1530 (Cambridge University Press, 1994) esp. P. Biller, ‘Heresy and Literacy: Earlier History of the Theme’, pp.1–18, and R. I. Moore, ‘Literacy and the Making of Heresy, c.1000–c.1150’, pp. 19–37. BT1319.H3

 

  1. Peter Biller, ‘The Topos and reality of the heretic as illiteratus’, in his The Waldenses, 1170–1530 (Aldershot, 2001), 169–90.

 

  1. Christopher Brooke, ‘Heresy and Religious Sentiment 1000–1250’, (Bulletin of the Institute of) Historical Research, 41 (1968), 115–31.

 

  1. Rosalind and Christopher Brooke, Popular Religion in the Middle Ages: Western Europe 1000–1300 (London, 1984) chapter 5: ‘Popular and unpopular religion’. BR270.B7

 

  1. M. L. Colish, ‘Peter of Bruys, Henry of Lausanne, and the Façade of St. Gilles’, Traditio, 28 (1972), 451–60

 

  1. Gary Dickson, Religious Enthusiasm in the Medieval West (Aldershot, 2000), BR112.D4

 

  1. D. H. Green, Medieval Listening and Reading: the Primary Reception of German literature, 800–1300 (Cambridge and New York, 1994), pp. 222–3 – did these people really intend to be called heretics? PT18.G7

 

  1. Malcolm Lambert, ‘The Motives of the Cathars: Some Reflections’ in Religious Motivation : Biographical and Sociological Problems for the Church Historian ; papers read at the Sixteenth Summer Meeting and the Seventeenth Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History, 15 (1978). BR140.S8

 

  1. Gordon Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages, BT1315.L3 – for each heresy there is a section on why it appeared.

 

  1. Robert Lerner, The Heresy of the Free Spirit (Notre Dame, IN and London, 1993), BT1358.L3, ch. 5 part 2 (pp. 112–19): these people did not regard themselves as heretics!

 

  1. Robert Lerner, ‘Ecstatic Dissent’, Speculum, 67 (1992). Also available online from JSTOR. How to avoid being a heretic.

 

  1. Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Montaillou: Cathars and Catholics in a French village, 1294–1324, trans. Barbara Bray (London: Scolar Press, 1978), ASSL: HN438.M6.L3; Bute: Social Sciences Library: HN438.M6.L3. His use of inquisitorial documents as a source for everyday life is contentious, yet most historians of heresy consider this book to be essential reading on later Catharism. The introduction and chapters 18 and 19 are probably the most relevant.

 

  1. R. I. Moore, ‘The Origins of Medieval Heresy’, History, 55 (1970)

 

  1. R. I. Moore, ‘New Sects and Secret Meetings: Association and Authority in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries’, in Voluntary Religion: Papers read at the 1985 Summer Meeting and the 1986 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. W.J. Sheils and Diana Wood,  Studies in Church History, 23 (1986), 47–68. BR140.S8

 

  1. R. I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society. Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950–1250 (Blackwells, 1987, new edn 2007), D135.M6

 

  1. R. I. Moore, ‘Heresy, Repression and Social Change in the Age of Gregorian Reform’, in Christendom and its Discontents, ed. Waugh and Diehl.

 

  1. Heresy and the persecuting society in the Middle Ages: essays on the work of R.I. Moore, ed. Michael Frassetto (Leiden and Boston, 2006) BT1319.H3 – for analysis of the above works.

 

  1. Brian Murdoch, The Medieval Popular Bible (Woodbridge, 2003), BS1235.52.M8: what ordinary people believed in.

 

  1.  Janet Nelson, ‘Society, Theodicy and the Origins of Heresy: Towards a Reassessment of the Medieval Evidence’, in Schism, Heresy and Religious Protest: Papers read at the tenth summer meeting and the eleventh winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History, 9 (1972). BR140.S8

 

  1. John Shinners, ed., Medieval Popular Religion, 1000–1300: a Reader (Broadview Press, 1997), BR252.M3

 

  1. Brian Stock, The Implications of Literacy. Written Language and Models of Interpretation in the 11th and 12th centuries (Princeton: Princeton U.P., 1983), P211.S8

 

  1. You may also look at the reviews of a useful German work, I. Geyer’s book on ‘Marie of Oignies: a mystic of the High Middle Ages caught between heresy and orthodoxy’ reviewed in: Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 45 (1994), 500–502

 

The ‘women-question’ – was heresy especially attractive to women?

  1. Women and Writing in Medieval Europe, ed. Carrolyne Larrington (London, 1995), pp. 95–6. PN682.W6.L2 

 

  1. R. Abels and E. Harrison, ‘The Participation of Women in Languedocian Catharism’, Mediaeval Studies, 41 (1979), 215–251.

 

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘Women and Catharism’, III in his Crusaders and Heretics: 12th–14th centuries (Aldershot and Brookfield, VT: Variorum, 1995), BR270.B2

 

  1. Peter Biller, ‘Cathars and Material Women’, in Medieval Theology and the Natural Body, ed. Peter Biller and Alastair J. Minnis (Rochester: York Medieval Press, 1997), BT741.2.M3

 

  1. Brenda Bolton, The Medieval Reformation (London: E. Arnold, 1983), BR270.B6: ch. 5.

 

  1. Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Montaillou (1978), chs 12 and 16 are based on an inquisitorial investigation which produced some ‘evidence’ on women’s role in a partly Cathar society.

 

  1. Shannon McSheffrey, Gender and Heresy (1995), BX4901.2.M2 

 

  1. J. H. Mundy, Men and Women at Toulouse in the Age of the Cathars (Toronto, 1990), HQ1147.F7.M8. Especially pages 41–46.

 

Women in other religious orders and groups, for comparison

 

  1. Peter Biller, ‘The Common Woman in the Western Church in the Thirteeenth and Fourteenth Centuries’, in Women in the Church, ed. W. J. Sheils and Diana Wood, Studies in Church History, 27 (1990); BR140.S8

 

  1. Brenda Bolton, ‘Mulieres Sanctae’, in Women in Medieval Society, ed. Susan Mosher Stuard (Philadelphia, 1976), Central HQ1143.W6

 

  1. Rosalind B. Brooke and Christopher N. L. Brooke, ‘St. Clare’, Medieval Women, ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History subsidia, 1 (1978), pp. 275–87. BR140.S8

 

  1. Rosalind B. Brooke, The Coming of the Friars (London, 1975), BX2820.B7 esp. ch.7.

 

  1. Caroline Walker Bynum, Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion (New York: Zone Books, 1997), BT741.2.B9. See esp. pp. 143–6.

 

  1. J. Coakley, ‘Gender and the Authority of friars: the Significance of Holy Women for 13th century Franciscans and Dominicans’, Church History, 60 (1991), 445–60

 

  1. Gary Dickson, ‘The Burning of the Amalricians’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 40 (1989), 347–69: p. 350 on women in this heresy.

 

  1. Fiona J. Griffiths, ‘Sibings and the Sexes within the Medieval Religious Life’, Church History, 77 (2008), 26–53

 

  1. Barbara Hanawalt, ‘The Female Felon in Fourteenth-Century England’, in Women in Medieval Society, ed. Susan Mosher Stuard (1976), pp. 125-140; HQ1143.W6

 

  1. C. H. Lawrence, The Friars: Impact of the Early Mendicant Movement on Western Society (London, 1994) – look for women’s role in these orders.

 

  1. S. Wessley, ‘The Thirteenth-Century Gugliemites: Salvation through Women’, in Medieval women, ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History subsidia, 1, pp. 289–303. BR140.S8

 

 

3: Lectures 5 and 6 and Seminar 3: Reactions to heresy and the repression of heresy

 

(a) Reactions to heresy

Primary sources

Images of heretics:

  1. Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, p. 5: heretics as lepers;
  2. Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, no. 15 and no. 40: heretics as foxes;

                                                              i.      no. 13, no. 40, no. 45A: heresy as an infection;

                                                            ii.      no. 3B, heresy as poison;

                                                          iii.      no. 42, heretics can do magic; etc.!

  1. See the document Spot the medieval heretic for images of what heretics did;

 

  1. Jacques de Vitry, Sermons to a Military Order: Photocopy collection, under H. Nicholson/trans. and online at: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/MilitaryOrders/VITRY.html , sermon 38 to the brothers of a military order: heretics as locusts.

 

  1. The Crusade Against Heretics in Bohemia, 1418–1437, trans. Thomas A. Fudge (Aldershot, 2002), DB2080.F8, doc. 18, pp. 45–6: heretics as wolves.

 

Reactions to heresy

 

  1. Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, pp. 81, 93, 121; or Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, pp. 15, 21, 79, for lay reactions against heretics.

 

  1. Peters, Heresy and Authority, first section, on early Christian writers against heresy; these writers influenced later views of heresy.

 

  1. The Book of Margery Kempe, trans. Barry A. Windeatt (Penguin: Harmondsworth, 1985, 1994) particularly chs 57–63 on reactions to her weeping (NB: Margery claimed that she was not a heretic – but some people thought she was). PR2007.K3.B6.

 

Secondary reading

 

  1. Moore, Origins, esp. ch. 9.
  2. Malcolm Barber, ‘Propaganda in the Middle Ages’.
  3. Peter Biller, ‘Thesaurus Absconditus, the Hidden Treasure of the Waldensians’, in The Church and Wealth: papers read at the 1986 Summer meeting and the 1987 Winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. W.J. Sheils and Diana Wood, Studies in Church History, 24 (1987), pp.139–54. BR140.S8; also reprinted in his The Waldenses, 1170–1530, article VI.
  4. Sharon K. Elkins, Holy Women of twelfth-century England (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), BX4220.G7.E5, pp. 46–50 for examples of official Church authority being imposed on ‘ad hoc’ communities of women. Why was this done?
  5. Michael Gervers and James Powell, eds, Tolerance and Intolerance: Social Conflict in the Age of the Crusades (New York, 2001), D157.T6: medieval western European reactions to ‘the Other’ for comparison with reactions to heresy.
  6. Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Montaillou (1978), HN438.M6.L3 in ASSL and Bute: Social Sciences Library. See especially ch. 14.
  7. Robert Lerner, Heresy of the Free Spirit (Notre Dame, IN and London, 1993), BT1358.L3. See chs. 1 and 2 – on the stories told about heretics.
  8. R. I. Moore, ‘Guibert of Nogent and his world’, in Studies in Medieval History presented to R.H.C. Davis, ed. Henry Mayr-Harting and R. I. Moore (London: Hambledon, 1985), pp. 107–17. D117.S8
  9. R. I. Moore, ‘Popular Violence and Popular Heresy in Western Europe, c.1000–1179’, in Persecution and Toleration: papers read at the twenty-second summer meeting and the twenty-third winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. W.J. Sheils, Studies in Church History, 21 (1984), pp. 43–50. BR140.S8
  10. J. A. F. Thomson, ‘Orthodox Religion and the Origins of Lollardy’, History, 74 (1989), esp. pp. 42–3 on an ordinary man’s reaction to heresy.

 

(b) Repression of heresy

 

Primary sources

  1. In Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, above:

no. 3 pp. 79–81, no. 4, no. 5, no. 6 on 11th century trials of heretics

no. 7: the trial of Ramihrdus,1076–7: burning of a heretic

no. 9, p. 104: trial by water c.1114

no.10: an accused heretic is cleared, c.1122

no. 11 pp. 113–14: Henry of Le Mans is released, c.1115 (but see pp. 125–6)

no. 13 p. 121: the people of Saint-Gilles kill a heretic, c.1133–4

no. 28: a debate between Catholics and Cathars 1165

no. 29: dealing with heretics in Toulouse, 1178

nos 39–44: trials of heretics in France and Northern Europe.

no. 45: dealing with heretics in Trier in 1231

 

  1. Or, in Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy:

nos 1–7 on 11th century heresy and Ramihrdus;

no. 10, two priests escape conviction;

nos 22–23, heretics in Cologne and Liège;

nos 26–28, heretics in England and France.

 

  1. Peters, Heresy and Authority: includes documents on early heresy and heresy of the eleventh and twelfth centuries (nos 1–16); also no. 28 (Third Lateran Council) no. 29 (Ad Abolendam) no. 30 (Fourth Lateran Council) and nos 38–44 for later regulations against heretics.

 

  1. The Inquisitor Bernard Gui on inquisitorial technique: translated in Paul Halsall’s Medieval Sourcebook at: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/heresy2.asp

 

  1. Heresy Trials in the Diocese of Norwich, 1428–31, ed. N. P. Tanner, Camden Society fourth series, vol. 20 (1977) (Humanities periodical: not on library catalogue. Look on the shelf in the Humanities periodicals on the second floor of the Library, under ‘Camden Society’)

 

  1. The Inquisitor’s Guide: A Medieval Manual on Heretics, by Bernard Gui; trans. and ed. Janet Shirley (Welwyn Garden City: Ravenhall, 2006), BX1720.B3

 

  1. Lollards of Coventry: 1486–1522, ed. and trans. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman Tanner, Camden Society 5th series vol. 23 (2003). Humanities periodical under ‘Camden Society’

 

  1. John Hus at the Council of Constance, trans. Matthew Spinka (New York, 1965), part one. BX4917.P3.

 

  1. The Crusade Against Heretics in Bohemia, 1418–1437, trans. Thomas A. Fudge (Aldershot, 2002), DB2080.F8: execution of heretics in Bohemia: doc. 15, p. 41

 

  1. Walter Map, De Nugis Curialium, ed. M. R. James, C.N.L. Brooke and R. A. B. Mynors (Oxford, 1983), PA8380, pp. 119, 121: heretics in England.

 

See also:

General works:

  1. See above Lambert, Medieval Heresy, esp. chs 6, 9, 10 and Moore, Origins, chs 9–10.

 

Specific works:

  1. David Abulafia, Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor (London, 1988) on a persecuting monarch: pp. 155, 211 238, 292–3. DC151.A2

 

  1. John H. Arnold, Inquisition and Power: Catharism and the confessing subject in medieval Languedoc (Philadelphia, 2001), BX1720.A7 

 

  1. John Arnold, ‘Inquisition, Texts and Discourse’ in Texts and the Repression of Medieval Heresy, ed. Bruschi and Biller

 

  1. Robert Bartlett, Trial by Fire and Water: the Medieval Judicial Ordeal (Oxford, 1986), Law Library (first floor of Arts and Social Studies Library), LAW 343.72 B.

 

  1. Brenda Bolton, ‘Innocent III’s Treatment of the Humiliati’, in Popular Belief and Practice: Papers read at the ninth summer meeting and the tenth winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. G.J. Cuming and Derek Baker, Studies in Church History, 8 (1972), pp. 73–82 (BR140.S8); and reprinted in her Innocent III: Studies on Papal Authority and Pastoral Care (Aldershot, 1995), BX1236.B6

 

  1. Brenda Bolton, ‘Tradition and Temerity: Papal Attitudes to Deviants, 1159–1216’, in her Innocent III.

 

  1. Brenda Bolton, The Medieval Reformation, ch. 6.

 

  1. C.M.D. Crowder, Unity, Heresy and Reform 1378–1460, docs 13, 14, 15, 16. BX1270.C7

 

  1. James B. Given, Inquisition and Medieval Society: Power, Discipline, and Resistance in Languedoc (Ithaca, NY and London, 2001), BX1712.G4

 

  1. James B. Given, ‘The Inquisitors of Languedoc and the Medieval Technology of Power’, American Historical Review, 94 (1989), 336–59, and on JSTOR

 

  1. Bernard Hamilton, The Albigensian Crusade (1974), Historical Association Pamphlet, DC83.3.H2. Reprinted in his Monastic reform, Catharism and the Crusades (900–1300)(London, 1979), BX2470.H2.

 

  1. Bernard Hamilton, The Medieval Inquisition (London, 1981), a view disputed by some other historians. BX1712.H2.

 

  1. C.H. Haskins, ‘Robert le Bougre and the Beginnings of the Inquisition in Northern France,’ in his Studies in Medieval Culture (Oxford, 1929) A bit old now, but still some good stuff. See also ‘The Heresy of Echard the Baker of Rheims’, in the same. D127.H2

 

  1. Norman Housley, ‘Politics and Heresy in Italy: Anti-Heretical crusades, Orders and Confraternities, 1200–1500’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 33 (1982)

 

  1. Norman Housley, The Italian Crusades: the Papal-Angevin Alliance and the Crusades against Christian Lay Powers,1254–1343 (Oxford, 1982), D173.H6, ch. 2 on political crusades.

 

  1. Norman Housley, The Avignon Papacy and the Crusade (Oxford, 1986), D172.H6, pp.74–81.

 

  1. Elizabeth Kennan, ‘Innocent III, Gregory IX’, photocopy collection.

 

  1. Henry Ansgar Kelly, ‘Inquisition and the Prosecution of Heresy: Misconceptions and Abuses’, Church History, 58 (1989), 439–51

 

  1. Henry Ansgar Kelly, Inquisitions and Other Trial Procedures in the Medieval West (Aldershot, 2001) BV629.K3

 

  1. Richard Kieckhefer, Repression of Heresy in Medieval Germany (Philadelphia, 1979), BX1745.G3.K4

 

  1. Richard Kieckhefer, ‘The Office of Inquisition and Medieval Heresy: the Transition from Personal to Institutional Jurisdiction’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 46 (1995), 36–61

 

  1. Henry Charles Lea, A History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages, 3 vols (New York, 1906–1909), BX1711.L3 – a classic. His interpretation is now disputed but his evidence is impressive.

 

  1. Robert Lerner, The Heresy of the Free Spirit, chs 3–7

 

  1. L. Light, ‘The New Thirteenth-century Bible and the Challenge of Heresy’, Viator, 18 (1987), 275–88

 

  1. R. I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society.

 

  1. R. I. Moore, ‘Popular Violence and Popular Heresy in Western Europe’, Persecution and Toleration: Papers read at the twenty-second summer meeting and the twenty-third winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. W.J. Sheils, Studies in Church History, 21 (1984), pp. 43–50. BR140.S8.

 

  1. Mark Gregory Pegg, The Corruption of Angels: the Great Inquisition of 1245–1246 (Princeton, 2001), DC83.3.P3

 

  1. Edward Peters, Torture (Oxford: Blackwell, 1985), HV8593.P3, ch. 2.

 

30.  Karen Sullivan, The Inner Lives of Medieval Inquisitors (Chicago, 2011), BX1713.S8

 

  1. Andrew P. Roach, ‘Penance and the Making of the Inquisition in the Languedoc’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 52 (2001), 409–33

 

  1. Walter L. Wakefield, Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition in Southern France, 1100–1250 (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1974), DC611.L3.W2

 

  1. Diana Webb, ‘The Pope and the Cities: Anticlericalism and Heresy in Innocent III's Italy’, in Persecution and Toleration: Papers read at the twenty-second summer meeting and the twenty-third winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, edited by W.J. Sheils, Studies in Church History, 21 (1984), BR140.S8

 

c) How effective was repression?

See, in addition to the works cited above:

  1. Margaret Aston, ‘Lollardy and the Reformation: Survival or Revival?’ History, 49 (1964), 149–70

 

  1. Euan Cameron, The Reformation of the Heretics: the Waldenses of the Alps, 1480–1580 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1984), BX4881.2.C2

 

On the later history of the Waldensians, Lollards, Hussites and Cathars see the relevant chapters in Lambert, Medieval HeresyerH and Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages.

 

 

Part two: Individual heresies

 

 

4: Lecture 7: Heresy 1000–1200; Lecture 8: Heresy at the Universities; and Seminar 4: The Waldensians

 

Primary sources:

Evangelical heresies:

Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, nos 3–22, 30–38, 43B, 44, 52.

On Waldensians:

Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, nos 30–38, 43, 52, 55, pp. 386–404.

Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, nos 34, 40 (pp. 153–4) 39 (pp. 144–5).

Peters, Heresy and Authority, nos 23–27.

The Inquisitor’s Guide: A Medieval Manual on Heretics, by Bernard Gui; trans. and ed. Janet Shirley (Welwyn Garden City: Ravenhall, 2006), BX1720.B3. See the sections on the Waldensians.

 

Secondary sources: general reading:

Lambert, Medieval Heresy, chs 2, 3, 5, 8.

Moore, Origins, chs 2, 3, 4, 5.

 

On Waldensians:

  1. Lambert, Medieval Heresy, chs 5, 8, 19
  2. Moore, Origins, pp. 228–31
  3. Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages, vol.2, pp. 452–85.
  4. Biller and Hudson, Heresy and literacy, above, chapters 7–10.

 

Further reading on Waldensians

  1. Shulamith Shahar, Women in a Medieval Heretical Sect: Agnes and Huguette the Waldensians, trans. Yael Lotan (Woodbridge, 2001), BX4881.3.S4

 

  1. Gabriel Audisio, The Waldensian Dissent: Persecution and Survival, c. 1170–c.1570                 (Cambridge, 1999), BX4881.2.A8

 

  1. Gabriel Audisio, Preachers by Night: the Waldensian ‘Barbes’ (Leiden, 2006), BX4881.3.A8

 

  1. Peter Biller and Anne Hudson, eds, Heresy and literacy.

 

  1. Peter Biller, ‘Medieval Waldensian Abhorrence of Killing’, in The Church and War: Papers read at the Twenty-first Summer Meeting and the Twenty-second Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. W.J. Sheils, Studies in Church History, 20 (1983), pp. 129–46. BR140.S8

 

  1. Peter Biller, ‘Multum ieiunantes et se castigantes: medieval Waldensian asceticism’, in Monks, Hermits and the Ascetic Tradition: papers read at the 1984 Summer Meeting and the 1985 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. W.J. Sheils, Studies in Church History, 22 (1985), pp. 215–28. BR140.S8

 

  1. Peter Biller, The Waldenses, 1170–1530: Between a Religious Order and a Church (Aldershot, 2001), BX4881.2.B4

 

  1. Euan Cameron, The Reformation of the Heretics: the Waldenses of the Alps, 1480–1580 (Oxford, 1984), BX4881.2.C2

 

  1. Euan Cameron, Waldenses: Rejections of Holy Church in Medieval Europe (Oxford and Malden, MA., 2000), BX4881.2.C2

 

  1. Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages, 3rd edn. (London, 1970, etc.), BR270.C6, chs 2–3.

 

  1. Norman Cohn, Europe’s Inner Demons (revised edition is 1993, but earlier edition is OK), – use the index. BF1425.C6, BF1569.C6 and Law Library 272 C. Look up ‘Waldensians’ in index.

 

  1. Mary A. Rouse and Richard H. Rouse, ‘The Schools and the Waldensians: a New Work by Durand of Huesca’, in Christendom and its Discontents, ed. Waugh and Diehl.

 

General studies on evangelical heresies and related subjects

 

  1. Talal Asad, ‘Medieval Heresy: an Anthropological View’, Social History, 11 (1986), 354–62.

 

  1. Brenda Bolton, Medieval Reformation, esp. ch. 3.

 

  1. Brenda Bolton, ‘The Poverty of the Humiliati’, no. 14 in her Innocent III; and also in this book see no. 15, ‘Sources for the Early History of the Humiliati’, and no. 13, ‘Poverty as Protest: Some Inspirational Groups at the Turn of the Twelfth Century’.

 

  1. Christopher Brooke, ‘Heresy and Religious Sentiment, 1000–1250’, (Bulletin of the Institute of) Historical Research, 41 (1968), 115–31; and in his Medieval Church and Society (1971) BR252.B7

 

  1. M. L. Colish, ‘Peter of Bruys, Henry of Lausanne, and the façade of St. Gilles’, Traditio, 28 (1972), 451–6

 

  1. Michael Frassetto, ‘Heresy at Orléans in 1022 in the Writings of Contemporary Churchmen’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 49 (2005), 1–17

 

  1. Charles H. Haskins, ‘The Heresy of Echard the Baker of Rheims’, in his Studies in Medieval Culture (Oxford, 1929), ch.11. D127.H2.

 

  1. W. S. Jessee, ‘Robert d’Arbuissel: Aristocratic Patronage and the Question of Heresy’, in Journal of Medieval History, 20 (1994), 221–235

 

  1. Robert Lerner, Heresy of the Free Spirit (Berkeley, CA, 1972), BT1358.L3.

 

  1. R. I. Moore, ‘The Origins of Medieval Heresy’, History, 55 (1970)

 

  1. R. I. Moore, ‘Guibert of Nogent and his World’, in Studies in Medieval History presented to R.H.C. Davis.

 

  1. R. I. Moore, ‘New Sects and Secret Meetings’, in Studies in Church History, 23

 

  1. R. I. Moore, ‘Some Heretical Attitudes to Renewal of the Church’, Renaissance and Renewal in Christian history: Papers read at the Fifteenth Summer Meeting and the Sixteenth Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History, 14 (1977), pp. 87–93. BR140.S8

 

  1. R. I. Moore, Formation of a Persecuting Society.

 

  1. Jeffrey Burton Russell, Dissent and Reform in the Early Middle Ages (Berkeley, 1965), BR253.R8

 

  1. Brian Stock, The Implications of Literacy. Written Language and Models of Interpretation in the 11th and 12th centuries (Princeton, 1983), P211.S8

 

Universities

  1. Margaret Deanesly, The Lollard Bible and other Medieval Biblical Versions (Cambridge, 1920), BS136.D3, chs 1–3

 

  1. Gary Dickson, ‘The Burning of the Amalricians’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 40 (1989), 347–69

 

  1. A History of Twelfth-Century Western Philosophy, ed. Peter Dronke (Cambridge, 1992), B721.H4

 

  1. Heinrich Fichtenau, Heretics and Scholars in the High Middle Ages, 1000–1200, trans. Denise A. Kaiser (Philadelphia, 2000).

 

  1. From Ockham to Wyclif, ed. Anne Hudson and Michael Wilks, Studies in Church History Subsidia, 5 (1987): especially articles on Ockham for university heresy. BR140.S8

 

  1. Edward Peters, Limits of Thought and Power in Medieval Europe (Aldershot, 2001), D107.P3, esp. articles 3 and 4.

 

  1. J.M.M.H. Thijssen, ‘Master Amalric and the Amalricians: Inquisitorial procedure and the suppression of heresy at the university of Paris’, Speculum, 71 (1996), 43–65. Also available online from JSTOR

 

  1. J. M. M. H. Thijssen, Censure and Heresy at the University of Paris, 1200–1400 (Philadelphia, 1998), LF2166.T4

 

 

5: Lecture 9: Dualism; Lecture 10 and Seminar 5: The Albigensian Crusade

 

a) Dualist beliefs

Primary sources on Gnosticism and Manicheanism

  1. The Gnostic Scriptures, trans. Bentley Layton (London, 1987), BT1390.G6

 

  1. Hegemonius, Acta Archelai (The Acts of Archelaus), trans. Mark Vermes, Manichaean Studies 4 (Turnhout, 2001), BR65.H34.H3

 

  1. The Nag Hammadi Library in English, trans. by members of the Coptic Gnostic Library Project of the Institute for Antiquity and Christianity; James M. Robinson, Director (Leiden, 1977), BT1390.N2

 

Primary sources on Catharism

  1. Wakefield and Evans, Heresies, nos 23, 24, 25, 29, 37, 38, 42, 43A, 48, 49–51, 53–60.

 

  1. Moore, Birth of Popular Heresy, nos 35–40.

 

  1. Peters, Heresy and Authority, sections 3 and 9.

 

Secondary sources

Gnostic and dualist religions

  1. Janet Hamilton and Bernard Hamilton, Christian Dualist Heresies in the Byzantine World (1998), BT1319.C4 and at: http://www.medievalsources.co.uk/

 

  1. Hans Jonas, The Gnostic Religion: the Message of the alien God and the Beginnings of Christianity (Boston, 1963), BT1390.J6

 

  1. Yuri Stoyanov, The Other God: Dualist Religions from Antiquity to the Cathar Heresy (New Haven, 2000), BT1315.2.S8

 

  1. Edward Peters, Limits of Thought and Power in Medieval Europe (Aldershot, 2001), D107.P3. See the first three articles on ideas about the Creation of the world.

 

Catharism

  1. Lambert, Medieval Heresy, ch. 7

 

  1. Moore, Origins, chs 6–8

 

  1. John H. Arnold, Inquisition and Power: Catharism and the Confessing Subject in Medieval Languedoc (Philadelphia, 2001), BX1720.A7

 

  1. Malcolm Barber, The Cathars: Dualist Heretics in Languedoc in the High Middle Ages (Harlow and New York, 2000), BX4891.2.B2

 

  1. Peter Biller, ‘The Cathars of Languedoc’, in Biller and Hudson, Heresy and Literacy.

 

  1. Peter Biller, ‘Cathars and Material Women’, in Medieval Theology and the Natural Body, ed. Peter Biller and Alastair J. Minnis (Rochester: York Medieval Press, 1997), BT741.2.M3

 

  1. James B. Given, Inquisition and Medieval Society: Power, Discipline, and Resistance in Languedoc (Ithaca, NY and London, 2001), BX1712.G4

 

  1. J. Guitton, Great Heresies and Church Councils, trans. F. D. Wieck (London, 1963), chapter on Catharism – a basic guide. BT1315.G8

 

  1. Beverly Mayne Kienzle, Cistercians, Heresy, and Crusade in Occitania, 1145–1229: Preaching in the Lord’s Vineyard (Woodbridge, Suffolk and Rochester, NY, 2001), BX3432.S68.K4

 

  1. Malcolm Lambert, The Cathars (Oxford and Malden, MA, 1998), BX4891.2.L2

 

  1. Milan Loos, Dualist Heresy in the Middle Ages (Prague, 1974), BT1355.L6. Very detailed description of Cathar beliefs.

 

  1. Colin Morris, Papal Monarchy, ch.14 (ii).

 

  1. John Hine Mundy, Studies in the ecclesiastical and social history of Toulouse in the age of the Cathars (Aldershot and Burlington, VT, 2006), BR844.M8

 

  1.  John Hine Mundy, Men and women at Toulouse in the age of the Cathars (Toronto, 1990), HQ1147.F7.M8

 

  1. Mark Pegg, ‘Historiographical essay: On Cathars, Albigenses and Good Men of Languedoc’, Journal of Medieval History, 27 (2001): argues that the term ‘Cathar’ should not be used to label all medieval dualists, and argues against a link between Languedocian dualists and Bogimilism

 

  1. Claire Taylor, Heresy in medieval France: dualism in Aquitaine and the Agenais, 1000–1249 (London, 2005) BX4891.2.T2

 

  1. R. J. Teske, ‘William of Auvergne and the Manichees’, Traditio, 48 (1993), 63–75: a philosophical attack on Catharism

 

  1. Walter Wakefield, Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition, pp. 74–5.

 

b) The Albigensian Crusade

 

Primary sources:

 

  1. Janet Shirley, trans., The Song of the Cathar Wars (Aldershot, 16), DC83.3.G8

 

  1. Elizabeth Hallam, ed. and trans., Chronicles of the Crusades (London, 1989), Folio D161.1.C4, pp. 226–242.

 

  1. The History of the Albigensian Crusade: Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay’s Historia Albigensis, trans. W.A. and M.D. Sibly (Woodbridge, 1998), DC83.2.P3

 

  1. The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens: the Albigensian Crusade and its Aftermath, trans. W.A. and M.D. Sibly (Woodbridge, 2003), BX4891.3.W4

 

  1. The description of the sack of Béziers in Caesarius of Heisterbach, The Dialogue on Miracles, trans. by H. von E. Scott and C. C. Swinton Bland, intro. G. G. Coulton (London, 1929), vol. 1, pp. 343–7, PA8295.C3.S2. This description is also translated in Helen Nicholson, The Crusades (2004), pp. 145–8. D157.N4.

 

  1. The Inquisitor’s Guide: A Medieval Manual on Heretics, by Bernard Gui; trans. and ed. Janet Shirley (Welwyn Garden City: Ravenhall, 2006), BX1720.B3. See the sections on the Cathars.

 

Secondary sources:

  1. Lambert, Medieval Heresy, chs 6 and 7

 

  1. Gordon Leff, Heresy in the later middle ages: the relation of heterodoxy to dissent, c.1250–1400, 2 vols (Manchester: Manchester U.P., 1967) BT1315.L3, vol. 2, pp. 450–2.

 

  1. A History of the Crusades, ed. K. Setton, vol. 2: The Later Crusades, 1189–1311, ed. R. L. Wolff and H. W. Hazard, ch. 8, pp. 276–324 on the Albigensian Crusade. D157.H4 and online at: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/History-idx?type=article&did=History.CrusTwo.i0022&id=History.CrusTwo&isize=M

(If this link does not work, go to http://uwdc.library.wisc.edu/collections/History/HistCrusades, click on ‘Browse’, click on ‘volume 2’, and then click on the chapter on the Albigensian Crusade.)

 

  1. M. Barber, ‘Catharism and the Occitan nobility’, no. XI in his Crusaders and Heretics

 

  1. Malcolm Barber, The Cathars, BX4891.2.B2

 

  1. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Albigensian Crusades: Wars like any Other?’ in Dei gesta per Francos: études sur les croisades dédiées à Jean Richard; crusade studies in honour of Jean Richard, ed. Michel Balard, Benjamin Z. Kedar and Jonathan Riley-Smith (Aldershot, 2001), D159.D3: pp. 45–55.

 

  1. Michael D. Costen, The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade (Manchester, 1997), BX4891.2.C6

 

  1. Elaine Graham-Leigh, The Southern French nobility and the Albigensian Crusade (Woodbridge, 2005), DC83.3.G7

 

  1. Bernard Hamilton, The Albigensian Crusade, DC83.3.H2 and BX2470.H2.

 

  1. R. Kay, ‘The Albigensian Twentieth of 1221–3: an Early chapter in the History of Papal Eaxation’, Journal of Medieval History, 6 (1980) – on the organisation of the crusade.

 

  1. Richard Kay, The Council of Bourges, 1225: A Documentary History (Aldershot, 2002), BX1529.K2 – again, on the organisation of the crusade.

 

  1. Malcolm Lambert, ‘The Motives of the Cathars’.

 

  1. Malcolm Lambert, The Cathars, BX4891.2.L2

 

14.  Laurence W. Marvin, The Occitan War: A Military and Political History of the Albigensian Crusade, 1209–1218 (Cambridge, 2008), DC83.3.M2

 

  1. Mark Pegg, The Corruption of Angels, DC83.3.P3

 

  1. Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Crusades: A Short History (London, 1990), pp. 133–39: Central D157.R4

 

  1. J. Sumption, The Albigensian Crusade (London, 1978), – avoid chapter 2. DC83.3.S8

 

  1. Walter Wakefield, Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition, DC611.L3.W2

 

There is a summary online at: http://www.the-orb.net/textbooks/crusade/albig.html

 

 

SECOND SEMESTER

 

 

7: Lectures 11 and 12: New directions and the heresy of the free spirit; Seminar 6: What was dangerous about the heresy of the free spirit?

 

Primary sources

 

  1. Marguerite Porete, The Mirror of Simple Souls, trans. E. L. Babinsky (New York, 1993) (and there are also other translations available in the library) – she was burned for heresy in 1310 on the basis of this book. BV5091.C7.P2. See Lerner, Heresy of the Free Spirit, pp. 71–8, and Lambert, Medieval Heresy, p. 184.

 

Compare her writings to:

  1. Meister Eckhart, in Meister Eckhart, Teacher and Preacher, ed. Bernard McGinn (New York, 1986), B765.E32.M2 – he was posthumously condemned for heresy. See Lerner, Heresy of the Free Spirit, p.182–6.

 

  1. ‘The Sister Catherine Treatise’, in Bernard McGinn, Meister Eckhart, Teacher and Preacher, pp. 10–14, 349–87: and see Lerner, Heresy of the Free Spirit, pp. 215–21. An heretical tract.

 

  1. Mechthild of Magdeburg , The Flowing Light of the Godhead, trans. Frank Tobin (New York, 1998) BV5091.V6.M3; she was accused of heresy, but not convicted.

 

  1. Jacques de Vitry and Thomas de Cantimpré, Two lives of Marie D’Oignies, trans. Margot H. King, Hugh Feiss et al., 4th edn (Toronto, Ontario, 1998), BX4705.M423.T9. Not a heretic – but can you tell the difference?

 

  1. Gertrude of Helfta, The Herald of Divine Love, trans. Margaret Winkworth (New York, 1993), BX4700.G6. Not a heretic: but can you tell the difference?

 

  1. Agnes Blannbekin, Viennese Beguine: Life and Revelations, trans. Ulrike Wiethaus (Woodbridge, 2002), BV5095.B57.B5

 

  1. Send me God. The Lives of Ida the Compassionate of Nivelles, nun of La Ramée, trans. M. Cawley, intro. B. Newman (Turnholt, 2003), BR1720.I3.G6

 

  1. The Inquisitor’s Guide: A Medieval Manual on Heretics, by Bernard Gui; trans. and ed. Janet Shirley (Welwyn Garden City: Ravenhall, 2006), BX1720.B3. See the section on the Beguins and Beguines.

 

See also:

  1. Peters, Heresy and Authority, sections 7–8

 

  1. The Chronicle of Salimbene de Adam, ed. and trans. Joseph L. Baird (Binghamton, N.Y, 1986) BX4705.S24.S2. Look up index for: Apostles, order of Flagellants, Great Halleluja;

 

  1. http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Councils/ecum15.htm#can28 for the Council of Vienne, 1311–12, which condemned the Beguines and Beghards.

 

General reading:

Lambert, Medieval Heresy, ch. 10 and ch.11.

Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages, vol.1, ch. 4.

Alexander Murray, ‘Piety and Impiety in Thirteenth-century Italy’, in Popular Belief and Practice: Papers read at the ninth summer meeting and the tenth winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. G.J. Cuming and Derek Baker, Studies in Church History, 8 (1972) – BR140.S8. The context: how religious were most people in the middle ages?

 

Specific reading on the heresy of the Free Spirit: most important:

  1. Robert Lerner, The Heresy of the Free Spirit.

 

See also:

  1. Frances Beer, Women and Mystical Experience in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 1992), pp.78–108. BV5075.B3

 

  1. Brenda Bolton, ‘Mulieres Sanctae’.

 

  1. F. Bowie, Beguine Spirituality: an Anthology (SPCK, 1989), BV5075.B3

 

  1. J. Coakley, ‘Gender and the Authority of Friars: the Significance of Holy Women for thirteenth-century Franciscans and Dominicans’, Church History, 60 (1991), 445–60; compare these holy women, and their relationship with their male confessors, with the women in the heresy of the free spirit such as Sister Catherine.

 

  1. Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium, chs 8 and 9

 

  1. Paul F. Crawford, 'The Involvement of the University of Paris in the Trials of Marguerite Porete and of the Templars, 1308–10', in The Debate on the Trial of the Templars (1307–1314), ed. Jochen Burgtorf, Paul F. Crawford and Helen J. Nicholson (Farnham, 2010), pp. 129–43, CR4743.B8 and e-book

 

  1. Sean L. Field, ‘The Master and Marguerite: Godfrey of Fontaines’ praise of The Mirror of Simple Souls’, Journal of Medieval History, 35 (2009), 136–49

 

  1. H. Geybels, Vulgariter Beghinae. Eight Centuries of Beguine History in the Low Countries (Turnhout, 2004), BX4272.G3

 

  1. Mary J. Finegan, The Women of Helfta: Scholars and Mystics (Athens, GA, 1991). Women who were NOT heretics but who might come under suspicion of it. BV5077.G3.F4

 

  1. Amy Hollywood, The Soul as Virgin Wife (Ann Arbor, 2001). An image of a person’s relationship to God which was adopted by both heretics and Catholics.

 

  1. G. Jantzen, Power, Gender and Christian Mysticism (Cambridge, 1995), ch.7. BV5075.J2

 

  1. Robert Lerner, ‘The Image of Mixed Liquids in Late Medieval Mystical Thought’, Church History, 40 (1971)

 

  1. Robert Lerner, ‘The Angel of Philadelphia in the Reign of Philip the Fair: the Case of Guiard de Cressonart’, in Order and Innovation in the Middle Ages, ed. William Jordan et al. (Princeton, 1976), D200.O7. A defender of Marguerite Porete.

 

  1. Robert Lerner, ‘New light on The Mirror of Simple Souls’, Speculum, 85:1 (2010) 91–116

 

  1. J. A. McNorman, ‘The Rhetoric of Orthodoxy’, in Maps of Flesh and Light: the Religious Experience of Medieval Women, ed. U. Wiethaus (Syracuse NY, 1993), BV5075.M2

 

  1. C. Neel, ‘The Origins of the Beguines’, in Sisters and Workers in the Middle Ages, ed. Judith Bennett (Chicago, 1989), HQ1143.S4.

 

  1. Sara S. Poor, Mechthild of Magdeburg and her Book (Philadelphia, 2004), BV5095.M3.P6

 

  1. R. W. Southern, Western Society, section 7.

 

  1. Diana M. Webb, ‘Women and Home: the Domestic Setting of Late Medieval Spirituality’, in Women in the Church, ed. W. J. Sheils and Diana Wood, Studies in Church History, 27 (1990), pp. 159–173. BR140.S8. Compare these women to the women in the heresy of the free spirit.

 

  1. See also review of Geyer’s ‘Marie of Oignies’, in Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 24 (1994), 500–502.

 

New Directions: Joachimism and Spiritual Franciscans

  1. David Burr, The Spiritual Franciscans: From Protest to Persecution in the Century after St Francis (Philadelphia, 2001), BX3606.2.B8

 

  1. Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium, chs 6 and 7

 

  1. Alan Friedlander, The hammer of the inquisitors: Brother Bernard Délicieux and the struggle against the inquisition in fourteenth-century France (Leiden and Boston, MA, 2000) BX1720.F7

 

  1. Ruth Nissé, ‘Prophetic Nations’, in New Medieval Literatures, vol. 4, ed. Wendy Scase, Rita Copeland and David Lawton (Oxford, 2001), pp. 95–115. PN681.N3

 

  1. Marjorie Reeves, ‘Originality and Influence of Joachim of Fiore’, Traditio, 36 (1980), 269–316; on Joachim of Fiore’s beliefs in the late twelfth and early thirteenth century.

 

  1. Marjorie Reeves, Joachim of Fiore and the Prophetic Future: a Medieval Study in Historical Thinking (Stroud, 1999), BX4705.J6.R3.

 

  1. Michael Wilks, ed., Prophecy and Eschatology, Studies in Church History Subsidia, 10 (1994): BR140.S8. Articles on Antichrist, Joachim of Fiore and Franciscans.

 

New Directions: Heresy in the British Isles

 

  1. The Mirror of Justices, ed. William J. Whittaker, Selden Society, 7 (1895) Shelved with Humanities Journals under ‘Selden Society’, pp. 59–60, 135

 

  1. Clarence Perkins, ‘The Trial of the Knights Templars in England’, English Historical Review, 24 (1909), 432–47: available online at JSTOR

 

  1. Frederick Pollock and Frederic W. Maitland, The History of English Law before the time of Edward I, 2nd edn, vol. 2 (Cambridge, 1923), pp. 546–551. Law library, 345.942 P

 

  1. Nicholas Vincent, ‘England and the Albigensian Crusade’, in England and Europe in the Reign of Henry III, ed. Bjorn Weiler and Ifor Rowlands (Aldershot, 2002), DA227.E6

 

  1. J. Watt, ‘Negotiations between Edward II and John XXII concerning Ireland’, Irish Historical Studies, 10 (1956), 1–20

 

  1. In the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online, look up Bryt [Brytte], Walter, and Ó Tuathail, Adam Dubh [Adam Duff O’Toole]. NOTE: Walter Bryt was not the same as Walter Brut.

 

 

7: Lectures 13 and 14: Wycliffe and the Lollards; Seminar 7: In what sense, if any, were the Lollards revolutionaries?

 

Primary sources

  1. Peters, Heresy and Authority, section 10 nos 56–60.

 

  1. An Apology for Lollard Doctrines attributed to Wicliffe, ed. J. H. Todd, Camden Society 1st series no. 20 (1842) – humanities periodical under ‘Camden Society’

 

  1. C.M.D. Crowder, Unity, Heresy and Reform, doc.13.

 

  1. Heresy Trials in the Diocese of Norwich, 1428–31, ed. N. P. Tanner, Camden Society fourth series, vol. 20 (1977) (not in catalogue: look in Humanities periodicals under Camden Society).

 

  1. Lollards of Coventry: 1486–1522, ed. and trans. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman Tanner, Camden Society 5th series vol. 23 (2003). Humanities periodical under ‘Camden Society’

 

  1. The Book of Margery Kempe – was she affected by Lollardy? PR2007.K3.B6. And search on the library catalogue for other works on Margery Kempe.

 

  1. English Wycliffite sermons, ed. Anne Hudson et al., 5 vols (Oxford, 1983–96), BX4900.E6

 

  1. Selections from English Wycliffite writings, ed. Anne Hudson (Cambridge, 1977; Toronto, 1997), BX4900.S3

 

  1. John Wycliffe in Library of Christian Classics, vol 14: Advocates of Reform, ed. Matthew Spinka (London, 1953), BR53.L4

 

There is some material online at:

http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/culture/towns/florilegium/community/cmreli08.html

http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/culture/towns/florilegium/community/cmreli09.html

http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/culture/towns/florilegium/community/cmreli10.html

 

General reading

  1. Lambert, Medieval Heresy, chs 12–13 and 19
  2. Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages, vol. 2, ch. 7 on Wycliffe and ch. 8 on the Lollards.

 

  1. Kathleen Kamerick, Popular Piety and Art in the Late Middle Ages: Image Worship and Idolatry in England, 1350–1500 (New York, 2002), BR750.K2. The Catholic Church’s confusion over what was the difference between idolatry and legitimate veneration of images.

 

  1. Kathryn Kerby-Fulton, Books under suspicion : censorship and tolerance of revelatory writing in late medieval England (Notre Dame, IN, 2006), BV5091.R4.K3

 

  1. Gordon Leff, Medieval Thought from Saint Augustine to Ockham (Harmondsworth, 1958), gives a good introduction to the philosophies involved; see esp. pp. 104–14 and 255–61. D721.L3

 

  1. G. Macy, ‘The Dogma of Transubstantiation in the Middle Ages’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 45 (1994), 11–41; in case you wondered what it was.

 

  1. Edward Peters, Limits of Thought and Power in Medieval Europe (Aldershot, 2001), D107.P3 See the articles on Dante for discussion of concepts of authority and power.

 

Specific reading on Lollardy:

  1. John Arnold, 'Lollard Trials and Inquisitorial Discourse', in Fourteenth-Century England II, ed. C. Given-Wilson (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2003), pp. 81–94. A series of volumes at DA225.F6. This article compares the language used about Lollards with the language used against Cathars.

 

  1. Margaret Aston, ‘Corpus Christi and Corpus Regni: Heresy and the Peasants’ Revolt’, Past and Present, 143 (1994), 3–47: also available online from JSTOR

 

  1. Margaret Aston, ‘Lollardy and Sedition’, in Peasants, Knights and Heretics: Studies in Medieval English Social History, ed. Rodney Hilton (Cambridge, 1976), HC254.H4 and in Past and Present, 17 (1960), 1–44: also available online from JSTOR; also reprinted in her Lollards and Reformers (below), pp. 1–48

 

  1. Margaret Aston, ‘Lollardy and Literacy’, History, 62 (1977), 347–71, and in her Lollards and Reformers (see below), pp. 193–217

 

  1. Margaret Aston, ‘Lollard Women Priests?’ in Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 31 (1980), 441–61, and in her Lollards and Reformers (see below), pp. 49–70

 

  1. Margaret Aston, Lollards and Reformers: Images and Literacy in Late Medieval Religion (London, 1984), BX4901.2.A8

 

  1. Margaret Aston, Faith and Fire: Popular and Unpopular Religion, 1350–1600 (London and Rio Grande, OH, 1993) BR750.A8

 

  1. Margaret Aston, England’s Iconoclasts, vol. 1 (Oxford, 1988), BR750.A8, ch.4

 

  1. Margaret Aston and Colin Richmond, eds, Lollardy and the Gentry in the Later Middle Ages (Stroud, 1997), BX4901.2.L6.

 

  1. Helen Barr and Ann M. Hutchinson, eds, Text and Controversy from Wyclif to Bale, Essays in Honour of Anne Hudson (Turnhout, 2005), BR295.T3

 

  1. Alcuin Blamires, ‘The Wife of Bath and Lollardy’, Medium Ævum, 58 no.2 (1989), 224–42

 

  1. J. Catto, ‘Dissidents in an Age of faith: Wyclif and the Lollards’, History Today, 37, Nov. (1987), 46–52

 

  1. J. Catto, ‘Wyclif and the Cult of the Eucharist’, in The Bible in the Medieval World: Essays in Memory of Beryl Smalley, ed. Katherine Walsh and Diana Wood, Studies in Church History subsidia, 4 (1985), pp. 269–86. BR140.S8

 

  1. Norman Cohn, Pursuit of the Millennium, ch. 11, first part.

 

  1. Rita Copeland, Pedagogy, Intellectuals, and Dissent in the Later Middle Ages: Lollardy and Ideas of Learning (Cambridge and New York, 2001), LA631.3.C6

 

  1. Margaret Deanesly, The Lollard Bible and other Medieval Biblical Versions (Cambridge, 1920), BS136.D3

 

  1. A. J. Fletcher, ‘John Mirk and the Lollards’, Medium Aevum, 56 (1987), 217–24

 

  1. Kantik Ghosh, The Wycliffite Heresy: Authority and Interpretation (New York, 2001), BS480.G4

 

  1. P. T. Horner, ‘The King Taught us the Lesson: Benedictine Support for Henry V’s Suppression of the Lollards’, Mediaeval Studies, 52 (1990), 190–220

 

  1. Anne Hudson, Lollards and their Books (London, 1985), BX4901.2.H8

 

  1. Anne Hudson, The Premature Reformation: Wycliffite Texts and Lollard History (Oxford, 1988), BX4901.2.H8

 

  1. Anne Hudson, ‘The Mouse in the Pyx: Popular Heresy and the Eucharist’, Trivium, 26 (1991), 40–53

 

  1. Anthony Kenny, Wyclif (Oxford, 1985), BX4905.K3: on his ideas.

 

  1. Gordon Leff, ‘Wyclif and Hus: a Doctrinal Comparison’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 50 (1968), 387–410.

 

  1. Kenneth B. McFarlane, Lancastrian Kings and Lollard knights (Oxford, 1972), DA245.M2

 

  1. Kenneth B. McFarlane, John Wycliffe and English Non-conformity (Harmondsworth, 1952), BX4905.M2

 

  1. Sharron McSheffrey, Gender and Heresy: Women and Men in Lollard Communities 1420–1530 (Philadelphia, 1995), BX4901.2.M2.

 

  1. Richard Rex, The Lollards (Basingstoke and New York, 2002), BX4901.2.R3

 

  1. J. A. Robson, Wyclif and the Oxford Schools (Cambridge, 1961), BX4905.R6

 

  1. Fiona Somerset, Jill C. Havens and Derrick G. Pitard, eds, Lollards and their influence in Late Medieval England (Woodbridge, 2003) Short loan: BX4901.3.L6

 

  1. J. A. F. Thomson, The Later Lollards, 1440–1520 (London, 1967), BX4901.T4, is very useful, especially chs 10 and 12.

 

  1. J. A. F. Thomson, ‘Orthodox Religion and the Origins of Lollardy’, History, 74 (1989)

 

40.  Nancy Bradley Warren, ‘Kings, Saints and Nuns: Gender, Religion and Authority in the Reign of Henry V’, Viator, 30 (1999), 307–22

 

41.  From Ockham to Wyclif, ed. Anne Hudson and Michael Wilks, Studies in Church History Subsidia, 5 (1987), has several articles on Wycliffe: BR140.S8.

 

Specific reading on Margery Kempe

·         Alexandra Barratt, ‘Continental women mystics and English readers’, in The Cambridge companion to medieval women's writing, ed. Carolyn Dinshaw and David Wallace (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 240-255, PN471.C2

·         Liz Herbert McAvoy, Virgin, mother, whore: the sexual spirituality of Margery Kempe’, Intersections of Sexuality and the Divine in Medieval Culture: The Word Made Flesh, ed. Susannah Mary Chewning (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), pp. 121–1 38, PR275.R4.I6

·         Margery Kempe: A Book of essays, ed. Sandra J. McEntire (New York, 1992), PR2007.K3.Z5.M2

·         Susan Signe Morrison, Women pilgrims in late medieval England: private piety and public performance (New York, 2000), electronic resource

·         Michael Vandussen, ‘Betokening chastity: Margery Kempe sartorial crisis’, Forum for Modern Language Studies, 41 (2005), 275–288

·         Rosalynn Voaden, ‘Travels with Margery pilgrimage in context’, in Eastward Bound: travel and travellers, 1050-1550, edited by Rosamund Allen (Manchester, 2004), 177-195, G156.E2

·         Look at her biography on the Oxford National Biography online (Cardiff University database) and look on the Voyager catalogue and on the International Medieval Bibliography online.

 

Specific reading on Walter Brut

·         David Aers, ‘Walter Brut’s Theology of the Sacrament of the Altar’, in Lollards and their influence in Late Medieval England, ed. Fiona Somerset, Jill C. Havens and Derrick G. Pitard (Woodbridge, 2003), pp. 115–126. Short loan: BX4901.3.L6

·         Anne Hudson, ‘The problems of scribes: the trial records of William Swinderby and Walter Brut’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 49 (2005), 80–104. Technical article with the charges given in Latin.

·         Maureen Jurokowski, ‘Who Was Walter Brut?’, English Historical Review, 127 (2012), 285302

·         Alastair Minnis, ‘ “Respondet Walterus Bryth …” Walter Brut in Debate on Women Priests’, in Text and Controversy from Wyclif to Bale, Essays in Honour of Anne Hudson, ed. Helen Barr and Ann M. Hutchinson (Turnhout, 2005), pp. 229–49. BR295.T3

·         J. Minnis, ‘De impedimento sexus: Women’s Bodies and Medieval Impediments to Female Ordination’, in Medieval Theology and the Natural Body, ed. Peter Biller and A.J. Minnis (Woodbridge, 1997), pp. 109–39.BT741.2.M3

·         Ruth Nissé, ‘Prophetic Nations’, in New Medieval Literatures, vol. 4, ed. Wendy Scase, Rita Copeland and David Lawton (Oxford, 2001), pp. 95–115. PN681.N3

 

 

8: Lectures 15–16: The Hussites; seminar 8: To what extent were the Hussites successful? Why did the crusades against the Hussites fail?

 

Primary sources:

  1. Peters, Heresy and Authority, section 10, nos 61–63.

 

  1. Crowder, Unity, Heresy and Reform, docs 14, 15, 16, 28.

 

  1. John Hus at the Council of Constance, trans. Matthew Spinka, BR4917.P3

 

  1. John Hus, by Matthew Spinka in Library of Christian Classics, vol.14: Advocates of Reform (1953), BR53.L4

 

  1. The Crusade Against Heretics in Bohemia, 1418–1437, trans. Thomas A. Fudge (Aldershot, 2002), DB2080.F8, esp. doc. 39, pp. 83–4: Four Articles of Prague

 

  1. The very pretty chronicle of John Zizka’, ch. 1 of: Frederick G. Heymann, John Zizka and the Hussite Revolution (Princeton, 1955), DB208.H3..

 

  1. ‘Letters and Messages of John Zizka’, appendix to Heymann, John Žižka and the Hussite Revolution

 

  1. Documents on the Later Crusades, 1274–1580, trans. Norman Housley (Basingstoke, 1996), D171.D6; see nos 37–42; and no. 43 is also interesting.

 

Secondary sources:

  1. Lambert, Medieval Heresy, chs 15–18
  2. Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages, vol.2, ch. 9.

 

  1. Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium, ch. 11.

 

  1. Thomas A. Fudge, The Magnificent Ride: The First Reformation in Hussite Bohemia (Aldershot and Brookfield, VT, 1998), BX4915.2.F8

 

  1. Thomas A. Fudge, Jan Hus: Religious Reform and Social Revolution in Bohemia (London, 2010) on order

 

  1. Frederick G. Heymann, John Zizka and the Hussite Revolution (Princeton, 1955), DB208.H3.

 

  1. F. G. Heymann, ‘The Crusades against the Hussites’, in A History of the Crusades, ed. Kenneth M. Setton, general editor. Vol.3, The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries; edited by Harry W. Hazard (Madison and London, 1975), D157.H4 and online at: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/History-idx?type=article&did=History.CrusThree.i0029&id=History.CrusThree&isize=M

(If this link does not work, go to: http://uwdc.library.wisc.edu/collections/History/HistCrusades, click on ‘Browse’, click on volume 3, then click on the chapter on the Hussite Crusades.)

 

  1. G. A. Holmes, ‘Cardinal Beaufort and the Crusade against the Hussites’, English Historical Review, 88 (1973), 721–50 and online at JSTOR

 

  1. Norman Housley, The Later Crusades, 1274–1580: from Lyons to Alcazar (Oxford, 1992), D171.H6, pp. 249–259.

 

  1. Norman Housley, ‘The Crusading Movement, 1274–1700’, in The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith (Oxford, 1995), pp. 281–283. D157.O9

 

  1. Janus Møller Jensen, Denmark and the Crusades, 1400–1650 (Leiden, 2007), pp. 56–70. D172.J3

 

  1. Howard Kaminsky, A History of the Hussite Revolution (Berkeley, 1967), DB2106.K2.

 

  1. H. Kaminsky, ‘The Free Spirit in the Hussite Revolution’, in Millennial Dreams in Action: Studies in Revolutionary Religious Movements, ed. Silvia Thrupp (New York, 1970), BT890.T4; a reprint of Millenial Dreams in Action: Essays in Comparative Study (The Hague, 1962), BT890.T4.

 

  1. J. Klassen, ‘The Disadvantaged and the Hussite Revolution’, International Review of Social History, 35 (1990), 249–72

 

  1. John M. Klassen, Warring Maidens, Captive Wives and Hussite Queens: Women and Men at War and at Peace in fifteenth century Bohemia (Boulder, 1999), DB2098.K5

 

  1. Gordon Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages: section on Hussites.

 

  1. Gordon Leff, ‘Wyclif and Hus: a Doctrinal Comparison’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 50 (1968), 387–410.

 

  1. Marcela K. Perett, ‘Vernacular Songs as “Oral Pamphlets”: The Hussites and Their Propaganda Campaign’, Viator, 42.2 (2011)

 

  1. Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Crusades, pp. 233–4 – sets the crusade into its context

 

  1. F. Smahel, ‘John Hus, Heretic or Patriot?’ History Today, 40 April (1990), 27–33

 

  1. F. Smahel, ‘ “Doctor evangelicus super omnes Evangelistas”, Wyclif’s future in Hussite Bohemia’, (Bulletin of the Institute of) Historical Research, 43 (1970), 16–34

 

  1. F. Smahel, ‘Literacy and Heresy in Hussite Bohemia’, in Biller and Hudson, eds, Heresy and Literacy

 

  1. S. H. Thomson, ‘Pre-Hussite heresy in Bohemia’, English Historical Review, 48 (1933), 23–42: available online from JSTOR

 

  1. K. Walsh, ‘Wyclifs’s Legacy in Central Europe’, in From Ockham to Wyclif , ed. Hudson and Wilks, Studies in Church History Subsidia, 5 (1987), pp. 397–417. BR140.S8

 

  1. H. B. Workman, The Dawn of the Reformation, vol. 2: The Age of Hus (London, 1933), BR305.W6

 

  1. You could also look at a review of a German work on John Hus, E. Werner’s ‘Jan Hus: the world influence of a Bohemian reformer’, in Church History, 64 (1995), 469–470;

in English Historical Review, 110 (1995), 167

in Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 45 (1994), 147–49.

 

  1. For the aftermath of the crusade see R.J. Mitchell, The Laurels and the Tiara: Pope Pius II 1458–1464 (London: Harvill Press, 1962), BX1308.M4 (look up ‘Hus’ and ‘Heresy’ in index).

 

 

9: Lectures 17 and 18: Medieval witchcraft and magic; Seminar 9: Why were magic and astrology so popular in the middle ages?

 

Primary sources

 

Richard de Ledrede, The Sorcery Trial of Alice Kyteler: a Contemporary Account (1324) together with related Documents in English Translation with Introduction and Notes, ed. by L.S. Davidson and J.O. Ward (Binghamton, N.Y, 1993), BF1581.L3

 

OR Proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler, ed. T. Wright, Camden Society 1st series, no. 24 (1843). The Camden Society is a Humanities periodical; the individual volumes are not separately catalogued. You must go to the shelf and look for this individual volume – they are in date order. Also in the Salisbury Collection (Reference) under WG36.5.634.

           

Document: to be handed out in class.

 

The Malleus maleficarum of Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger, trans. Montague Summers (New York, 1971), BF1569.A2.I6

OR  Malleus maleficarum: The Hammer of Witchcraft, by Jacobus Sprenger and Heinrich Kramer, trans. from the Latin by Montague Summers. Abridged edn, ed. Pennethorne Hughes (London, 1968), Senghennydd (Lifelong Learning) 133.4S. There are also extracts in the photocopy collection. This was written right at the end of our period.

 

Giovanni Boccaccio, The Decameron, 8th day, 7th story (the scholar and the widow) and 9th day, 10th story (Father Gianni and the mare). (There are various translations, but some leave out the ‘18 rated’ stories; the translation by G.H. McWilliam, 2nd edn (London, 1995), PQ4267.A2.F95, is complete).

 

There are some sources online at:

http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/culture/magwitch/magic.html

 

Secondary sources:

Most important:

  1. Richard Kieckhefer, Magic in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1989 and 2000), BF1593.K4. This is the most useful book on the subject.

 

Other reading:

 

Medieval science

  1. Lyndy Abraham, A Dictionary of Alchemical Imagery (Cambridge, 2001), PN56.A44.A2

 

  1. Charles Talbot, ‘Elexir of Youth,’ in Chaucer and Middle English Studies in honour of Rossell Hope Robbins ed. Beryl Rowland (London, 1974), PR251.C4 – on alchemy.

 

  1. Jim Tester, A History of Western Astrology (Woodbridge, 1987), BF1671.

 

  1. C. Butler, Number Symbolism (London, 1970), PN56.N8.B8

 

  1. Bruce S. Eastwood, The Revival of Planetary Astronomy in Carolingian and post-Carolingian Europe (Aldershot and Burlington, VT, 2002), D127.E2

 

  1. John Larner, Italy in the Age of Dante and Petrarch, 1216–1380 (London, 1980), DG531.L2. See ch. 2, especially pt. 1, on an emperor’s interest in astrology.

 

  1. Stephen C. McCluskey, Astronomies and Cultures in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1998), D127.M2

 

  1. Sara Schechner, ‘Astrolabes and Medieval Travel’, in The Art, Science and Technology of Medieval Travel, ed. Robert Bork and Andrea Kann (Aldershot, 2008), pp. 181–210, G369.A7

 

  1. For medical science in the Middle Ages see under R128.F7 and R141.M3

 

Medieval magic:

  1. Michael D. Bailey, Battling Demons: Witchcraft, Heresy and Reform in the Late Middle Ages (Philadelphia, 2003), BF1569.B2

 

  1. Alison Beardwood, The Trial of Walter Langton, Bishop of Lichfield (Philadelphia, 1964), Large Pamphlet, Folio DA170.B3.

 

  1. Charles Burnett, Magic and divination in the Middle Ages: texts and techniques in the Islamic and Christian worlds (Aldershot and Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Variorum, 1996), BF1593.B8

 

  1. Norman Cohn, Europe’s Inner Demons (London and Chicago, 1975, 1993 and 2000), BF1425.C6, etc.

 

  1. David J. Collins, ‘Magic in the Middle Ages: History and Historiography’, History Compass, 9 (May 2011), 410–22 (Online journal available via Cardiff University library)

 

  1. Owen Davies, Cunning-folk: Popular Magic in English History (London, 2003), BF1434.G7.D2

 

  1. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic, ed. Claire Fanger (Stroud, 1998), BF1593.C6

 

  1. The Devil, Heresy, and Witchcraft in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of Jeffrey B. Russell, ed. Alberto Ferreiro (Leiden and Boston, 1998); BT1319.D3.

 

  1. Bernard Hamilton, Religion in the Medieval West, ch. 17.

 

  1. M. Harvey: ‘Papal Witchcraft: the Charges against Benedict XIII’, in Sanctity and Secularity, ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History, 10 (1973), pp. 109–16. BR140.S8.

 

  1. Tamar Herzig, ‘Witches, Saints, and Heretics: Heinrich Kramer’s Ties with Italian Women Mystics’, Magic, Ritual and Witchcraft, 1 (2006), 24–55, on Learning Central, under HS1710 Heresy and Dissent 1000–1450>Bibliography>Bibliography for lectures 17–18 and seminar 9, bottom of the page.

 

  1. Tamar Herzig, ‘Flies, Heretics and the Gendering of Witchcraft’, in Magic, Ritual and Witchcraft, 5 (2010), 51–80 on Learning Central, under HS1710 Heresy and Dissent 1000–1450>Bibliography>Bibliography for lectures 17–18 and seminar 9, bottom of the page.

 

  1. R. Horsley, ‘Further Reflections on Witchcraft and European Folk Religion’, History of Religion, 19 (1979), 71–95

 

  1. G. Jantzen, Power, Gender and Christian mysticism (Cambridge, 1995), ch.7. BV5075.J2

 

  1. Karen Jolly, Catharina Raudvere and Edward Peters (eds), Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: the Middle Ages (2002).

 

  1. Richard Kieckhefer, European Witch Trials: their Foundations in Popular and Learned Culture, 1300–1500 (London, 1976), BF1565.K4

 

  1. Richard Kieckhefer, ‘The Specific Rationality of Medieval Magic’, American Historical Review, 99 (1994), 813–36; also available from JSTOR

 

  1. Richard Kieckhefer, Forbidden Rites: a Necromancer’s Manual of the Fifteenth Century (Stroud, 1997), BF1593.K4

 

  1. Richard Kieckhefer, ‘The Holy and the Unholy: Sainthood, Witchcraft, and Magic in Late Medieval Europe’, in Christendom and its Discontents, ed. Waugh and Diehl.

 

  1. H. Kelly, ‘English Kings and Fears of Sorcery’, Mediaeval Studies, 39 (1977), 206–38

 

  1. G. Kitteridge, Witchcraft in Old and New England (Cambridge MA, 1929), BF1565.K4 – rather old now but has its points.

 

  1. Thomas B. de Mayo, The Demonology of William of Auvergne: By Fire and Sword (Lampeter, 2007), B765.G84.M2. William of Auvergne (d. 1249), bishop of Paris and professor of theology at the University of Paris, discussed beliefs about demons

 

  1. Colin Morris, Papal Monarchy, ch.14 (ii) – very short.

 

  1. A. R. Myers, ‘The Captivity of a Royal Witch: the Household Servants of Queen Joan of Navarre, 1419–21’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 24 (1940) 263–84: this journal is in the Store, and can be ordered from there by filling in one of the green forms available from the Library Information Desk. The copy formerly in the Photocopy Collection is now in my office; let me know if you want to see it.

 

  1. A. Neary, ‘The Origins and Character of the Kilkenny Witchcraft case of 1324’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy Section C, 83 (1983), 333–50

 

  1. David Rollo, Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages (Minneapolis, 2000), PA8045.E5.R6

 

  1. S. Ruthven, ‘The Survival of Witchcraft in medieval England’, Medieval History, 3 (1993), 166–77. Warning! Says 1992 on spine!

 

  1. Jeffrey B. Russell, A History of Witchcraft: Sorcerers, Heretics, and Pagans (London, 1980), BF1566.R8

 

  1. Lynn Thorndike, A history of Magic and Experimental Science, vols 1–4 (New York, 1923–34), BF1411.T4

                                                                                                                      

 

Lecture 19: Heresy and the Reformation

 

  1. Lambert, Medieval Heresy, ch. 19

 

  1. Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages.

 

  1. Margaret Aston, Faith and Fire: Popular and Unpopular Religion, 1350–1600 (London and Rio Grande, OH, 1993) BR750.A8

 

  1. Margaret Aston, ‘Lollardy and the Reformation: Survival or Revival?’, History, 49 (1964), 149–70

 

  1. Gabriel Audisio, The Waldensian Dissent: Persecution and Survival, c. 1170–c.1570                 (Cambridge, 1999), BX4881.2.A8

 

  1. S. J. Barnett, ‘Where was your Church before Luther? Claims for the Antiquity of Protestantism examined’, Church History, 68 (1999), 14–41

 

  1. Biller and Hudson, eds, Heresy and Literacy, chs 9, 10, 15, 16

 

  1. Peter Biller, The Waldenses, 1170–1530: Between a Religious Order and a Church (Aldershot, 2001), BX4881.2.B4

 

  1. Euan Cameron, The Reformation of the Heretics: the Waldenses of the Alps, 1480–1580 (Oxford, 1984), BX4881.2.C2

 

  1. C.-P. Clasen, ‘Medieval Heresies in the Reformation’, Church History, 32 (1963), 1–23

 

  1. Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium, chs 12–13

 

  1. Sharron McSheffrey, Gender and Heresy: Women and Men in Lollard Communities 1420–1530 (Philadelphia, 1995), BX4901.2.M2.

 

  1. Richard Rex, The Lollards, ch. 5

 

  1. J. A. F. Thomson, The Later Lollards, 1440–1520 (London, 1967), BX4901.T4

 

  1. H. B. Workman, The Dawn of the Reformation, vol. 2: The Age of Hus (London, 1933), BR305.W6

 

There is an introductory essay online at: http://www.the-orb.net/textbooks/westciv/reformation.html

 

 

 

Seminar 10: In what ways did heresy and dissent change Europe?

 

How far did heresy and dissent contribute towards revolts?

Suggested reading includes:

·         William M. Bowsky, ‘The Medieval Commune and Internal Violence: Police Power and Public Safety in Siena, 1287–1355’, American Historical Review, 73 (1967), 1–17

·         Gene A. Brucker, ‘The Florentine Populo Minuto and its political role’, in Violence and civil disorder in Italian cities, 1200-1500, ed. Lauro Martines (Berkeley, 1972), pp. 155–83, DG530.V4

·         Gene A. Brucker, ‘The Ciompi Revolution’, in Florentine studies : politics and society in Renaissance Florence, ed. Nicolai Rubinstein (London: 1968), pp. 314–56: DG737.4.R8

·         Samuel Kline Cohn, Popular protest in late medieval Europe: Italy, France, and Flanders (Manchester, 2004), HN11.P6

·         R. B. Dobson, The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381, 2nd edn (London,  1983 ), DA235.P3

·         R. H Hilton and T. H Aston, The English Rising of 1381 (Cambridge, 1984),: DA235.E6

·         R. H. Hilton, Bond Men made Free: Medieval Peasant Movements and the English Rising of 1381 (London ,1988), Short Loan : DA235.H4

·         John M. Najemy, A History of Florence 1200–1575 (Malden, MA, 2006), DG737.4.N2, esp. pp. 156–87.

·         Richard C. Trexler, ‘Follow the Flag: The Ciompi Revolt seen from the Streets’, Bibliothèque d'humanisme et Renaissance: Travaux et documents, 46.2 (1984), pp. 357–92: Humanities Journal in the Arts and Social Studies Library

Use the International Medieval Bibliography online and the University Library Catalogue to find further reading.

 

How far did heresy and dissent contribute to the growth of bureaucratic government? (e.g., consider R. I. Moore’s book The Formation of the Persecuting Society)

 

How far did heresy and dissent contribute to the growth of education and the individual?

Or to the growth of nationalism and national governments?

… Did it contribute to the Reformation of the 16th century? (See the reading for the previous lecture)

… Can you think of any other changes which were brought about?

 

Revision

 

Week 12: Guided Study

 


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This page was created by Helen Nicholson, and was last updated on 30 September 2013.

 

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