Worked bone and antler - A N Smith


3005, 2, 1

Pin fragment, flat splayed head with blade-cut decoration. Norse shape of pin.

L 32 mm; Head W 13 mm; T 4.5 mm; Shank Dia 5 mm

3007,44, 11.1

Pin, complete, made from cancellous material, poss cartilage or rib end. Head v slightly splayed, flattened section.

L 86 mm; Head W 7.5 mm; T 3 mm; Mid-shank 5 x 2.5 mm

3044, US

Pin fragment, very simple shape, rounded section and head just rounded over top, not expanded.

L 45 mm; Dia 5 mm

3566, 314, 10.1

Pin, just tip of point missing, v simple shape, head very slightly expanded, with slight longitudinal curve and taper.

L 67 mm; Head W 5 mm; T 4.5 mm; Mid-shank 4 x 3.5 mm

Pin or fine point fragments

3060, 15, 7.2

Fragment of shank and point from larger pin or point. Heavily pitted and damaged at point end, poss gnawed.

L 55 mm; max W 7 mm; max T 3 mm

3288, 301, 10.1, 5

Fragment of point and shank from fine pin or needle.

L 43 mm; max Dia 3 x 2.5 mm

6000, 706, 6/4, 3

Very small point fragment, originally identified as comb tooth, but section too rounded, probably tip of point of pin or needle, or very fine point.

L 16 mm; max Dia 2 mm

Pig fibulae pins

3117, 104, 10.5,

Head largely unmodified, facets on shank smoothed and glossed. Possibly Norse.

L 86.5 mm; Head W 16 mm; T 6.5 mm; mid-shank 6 x 4 mm

3164, 5, 1

Pig fibula? pin, head and shank more heavily modified than previous example, cut down to more regular and symmetrical shape, also high glossy polish on shank and point.

L 85 mm; Head W 9 mm; T 4.5 mm; mid-shank 5 x 3.5 mm

3326, 239, 6.1

Pig fibula? pin, part of head and tip of point missing. Shank roughly faceted, with some softening and polish over working marks.

L 68.5 mm; Head W 7.5 mm; T 3 mm; mid-shank 5 x 3 mm

Points: expanded/U-section

3163, UN

Point or pin frag made from small long bone, still central channel showing, Point fairly fine, with softened faceting and medium gloss polish poss indicating use as pin.

L 72.5 mm; max W 6.5 mm; max T 3 mm

3400, 290, 7.1

Point or pin made from small hollow bone, still with central groove showing. Some slight smoothing in places, but not heavily worn.

L 52 mm; max W 7 mm; max T 5 mm

3629, 635, 7.3

Point or pin made from small hollow bone, one end thicker and expanded still with hollow core showing, point fairly fine and tapering. Some transverse cuts on head, and fine diagonal striations on one side of point, medium gloss polish.

L 70.5 mm; max W 9 mm; max T 6 mm

3488, 298, 7.1

Point formed from sheep-sized long bone or metapodial, one end roughly cut at angle. Edges of point softened and rounded by wear.

L 54 mm; Shaft max Dia 16 x 11 mm

Points: epiphyses remaining

3004, 76, 12.4

Sheep/goat metatarsal, roughly splintered, still retaining part of one epiphysis, but with point softened and worn. Stepped cuts on one side of point from whittling to sharpen, no other signs of working or wear.

L82.5 mm; mid-shaft Dia 7.5 x 4.5 mm

3171, 5, US

Point made from bird bone, epiphysis left on one end, other end cut at angle to produce fairly fine point. Some fine longitudinal striations on shaft.

L 91 mm; mid-shaft Dia 7 x 5 mm

Points: ribs

3430, 283, 7.1

Flattened triangular point fragment, made from rib or some other sandwich cancellous material. Fairly fine point, slightly rounded and worn.

L 51 mm; max W 19 mm; T 2.5 mm

3476, 237, 2.1

Small bone peg, from mount or comb? (cf Comb 3497), one end more rounded, other end roughly faceted.

L 35 mm; W 5 mm; 3.5 mm

3955, 586, 5/5, 2-5

Whalebone point or peg, fairly smooth and worn.

L 63.5 mm; W 12 mm; T 9 mm

Hollowed vertebrae

3032, 50, 12.2,

Several joined fragments of whale vertebra cup or box. Poss signs of burning inside near base, occurred before breakage. Rim slightly expanded and rounded. External surface has large number of fine criss-crossing knife cuts.

H 128 mm; W 110 mm; T at rim 12 mm; T at base 24 mm

3189, 5, US

Fragment of hollowed whale vertebra, poss part of cup or box. One side has some fine knife cuts.

H 79 mm; W 64 mm; T 5.5 - 25 mm

3495, 297, 7.1

Fragment of cancellous tissue, with one flattened surface and one curved surface, indicating fairly slight possibility that it could be from base angle of hollowed vertebra.

H 35 mm; W 36 mm; T variable, 5 - 20 mm

3627, 404, 9.3

Fragment of whalebone cancellous tissue, poss part of hollowed vertebra cup. Either v small diameter or rounded corner from subrectangular vessel. Although cancellous some areas on top of rim and on outside have been smoothed and polished.

H 69 mm; W 57 mm; T 9mm

Other modified vertebrae

3958, 50, 12.2

Cetacean vertebra, one spine only remaining, and one epiphyseal surface heavily cut about, with deep irregular pit roughly in centre, poss attempted perforation.

H 89 mm; Dia 85 x 90mm

3988A, US

Cetacean vertebral centrum, no spines remaining, and with perforation through drum.

H 82 mm; Dia 78 x 90 mm; Perf 10.5 - 18mm

3160, US

Two joining fragments of very large cetacean vertebra. The only signs of working are a few fine cuts on the epiphyseal surface, poss from removal of bone or from use as cutting surface.

L/H 273 mm; W 164 mm; T 70mm

Plaques/large flat objects

3190, 249, 5.2

Fragment of object with raised edge and two projections on one side and a perforation on the thinner part.

L 147 mm; max W 71.5 mm; T max 32mm min 18 mm; Perforation Dia 16mm

3504, 247, 6.1

Large object of cetacean bone, fairly solid material, not too open-textured. One end rounded and worn, 2 long sides, one with nick cut L 49 mm, other side straight- looks like original edge. Top edge broken. Shovel-blade, 'blubber-mattock'.

L 301 mm; max W 116 mm; T 18mm

3758, 229, 6.7

Flat whalebone object, slightly tapered towards one end, with the back roughly trimmed flat. There are two opposing pairs of indentations on the long edges, really just roughly chopped notches. All working seems to have been done with heavy blade poss cleaver or small axe.

L 262 mm; W max 84 mm; T max 17mm

3769, 730, 6.7

Flat whalebone object slightly similar to 3758 above, roughly rectangular shape, with one pair of opposing roughly worked notches, and one further notch on broken part with no partner. Notches seem to cut off corners and possibly allow for something to be bound around object? Back trimmed poss with adze-like tool.

L 161.5 mm; W max 67.5 mm; T 15.5mm

Cut length

3116, 104, 10.5,

Eighteen pieces of whalebone, some joining to form two large bones (possibly same one, as similar, but no physical join) each with one cut end. The pieces can be divided into four groups as follows:

1) Several joined fragments, with 2 loose joining fragments, forming a piece which has had one end chopped through with axe or cleaver.

L 225 mm; max W 78 mm; max T 44mm

2) Three joining fragments forming a piece which has had one end cut.

L 197 mm; max W 79 mm; max T 54mm

3) Seven loose fragments of thin external surface and cancellous tissue.

102 x 39 x 14 mm; 73 x 37 x 20 mm; 50 x 42 x 25 mm; 45 x 34 x 22 mm; 52 x 22 x 11 mm; 54 x 14 x 15 mm; 40 x 16 x 12mm

4) Six loose fragments of cancellous tissue.

63 x 33 x 34 mm; 54 x 35 x 15 mm; 32 x 26 x 16 mm; 36 x 22 x 13 mm; 25 x 16 x 10mm

3262, 226, 6.7

Fragment of large cetacean bone object. Close-textured and solid material with only small central core of cancellous material. Whole bone segment, one end broken, other end with interesting cuts around, evidencing cutting (sawing?) and turning. Only other working is on one side adjacent to cut end, trimming with axe or adze, showing stepped cuts, poss to make it fit into a socket?

L 274 mm; Cut end W 62 mm; T 42 mm; max W 65 mm; max T 45mm

3988B, US

Fragment of fairly large cetacean bone, chopped through at one end, other end broken. Some fine cuts across surface. Variable thickness of solid tissue.

L 190 mm; max W 76 mm; max T 46mm

3988C, US

Fragment of large cetacean bone, cut across one end straight, other end cut oddly, stepped, poss from cutting and snapping.

L 114 mm; max W 68 mm; max T 31mm

Other structural elements

3039, 61, 12.3

Complete bone of cetacean (which?) with chop marks on one end prob from butchery or removal of bone, other end has subrectangular hollow roughly gouged out. Setting for stake?

L 180 mm; max W 139 mm; max T 80 mm; Hollow 48 x 36 mm; Depth 45mm max

3790A, 229, 6.7

Large object of cetacean bone, fairly close-textured and solid material. V wood-like. Roughly shaped into point at one end. Prob complete, working poss carried out by axe or adze. Some sort of building material, post or stake fragment?

L 427 mm; max W 57 mm; max T 34mm

Cutting surface

3985, 89, 8.2

Fragment of cetacean bone - type with only thin skin of solid material. Skin surface covered in cut marks, some deeper, poss chops, others much lighter, cuts. Frag cutting surface.

L 101 mm; max W 55 mm; max T 30mm

Fuel residue

3055, 34, 7.5

28 fragments of cetacean bone, all burnt (various colours from pink, grey to white) and represent at least 4 different items, including one vertebral epiphysis with cut marks on surface, and one object with one flattened surface.

Scapula tools

3041A, 76, 12.4

Cattle scapula fragment (left), with most of the blade missing and the spine having been broken off in antiquity. Fairly poor condition and all thinner edges badly abraded so not possible to distinguish any wear.

Surviving H 186mm

3041B, 76, 12.4

Cattle scapula (right), most of spine has been deliberately removed, and there are also some small fragments of stone wedged into cancellous tissue of ridge, poss indication of use. Lower part of blade missing, also v poor condition, surface flaking so not possible to distinguish any other signs of wear.

Surviving H 242mm

3095, 130, 9.3

Cattle scapula (left), all of blade edge missing, and most of spine. Breaks on spine and chop mark on neck all look rather recent. Not a definite artefact.

Surviving H 219mm

3010, 44, 11.1,

Cattle scapula (left), almost complete. Spine largely unmodified, with some recent damage. Most interesting feature is end of blade, which has V-shaped notch worn or cut into it. The end and proximal sides of the blade appear to be extensively smoothed and worn.

H 296mm

3104, 8, 7.2

Cattle scapula (right), spine and outer edges of blade missing, but whole bone in very poor condition, and very difficult to distinguish between natural erosion and possible wear. Edge of blade also looks softened and outline rounded, but again could just be erosion.

Surviving H 243mm

3174, 204, 1, 5

Cattle scapula (left), head missing, also most of cranial side including spine and blade edge. However the small section of blade edge surviving appears worn and rounded, and the spine has been trimmed.

Surviving H 251mm

3191, US

Cattle scapula (left), v fragmentary. Spine partially removed, end of blade missing, but sides look convincingly worn and rounded.

Surviving H approx 280mm

3229, 16, 7.5

Cattle scapula (right), spine partially removed and end of blade appears to be worn. Usual butchery marks also in evidence.

Surviving H 297mm

3230, 203, 1, 5

Cattle scapula (right), head and most of blade missing. Spine has been broken off, poss some abrasion to edges of blade which survive, but in v poor condition and difficult to tell.

Surviving H 268mm

3581, 593, 6.2

Cattle(?) scapula (right), about half the size of the others, but the only one so far to display actual cut marks on the spine and also on the caudal edge of the blade. Such marks could occur during butchery, but would be very unusual and more likely for sharpening edge (pers comm F. McCormack). The end of the blade is missing, so no wear can be distinguished.

Surviving H 180mm

3600, 631, 6.2

Cattle scapula (left), v fragmentary, none of blade edges surviving. Spine largely intact except for some (poss recent) damage at distal end. There can be some doubt as to whether this is an artefact. The object is to fragmentary to be measured.

3907, 569, 6.3

Cattle scapula (left), v fragmentary. Part of spine seems to have broken off in antiquity, but only two fragments of blade end survive and these are not worn at all.

Surviving H approx 210mm

3910, 569, 6.3

Cattle scapula (right), v fragmentary but sufficent survives to see that the spine has been broken, esp towards proximal end - the highest bit has only modern break on it, possibly because RH use of RH scapula is not impeded by spine. Corners of blade also appear well worn and rounded.

Surviving H approx 285mm

3914, 567, 6.3

Cattle scapula (left), v fragmentary, but sufficent survives to see that the spine has been broken off to some extent although poss less than others, as 10-15mm still remains. Some parts of the blade end also appear to have been slightly worn although some parts are also completely unworn.

Surviving H approx 305-310mm

3965, 14, 7.4

Cattle scapula (left), edges of blade missing, also mixture of new and old breaks on spine making it difficult to distinguish to what extent worked. The end of the blade appears extensively worn, indicating use.

H 253mm

3966, 61, 12.3

Cattle scapula (right), most of blade missing, but spine has been cut and appears smoothed and worn.

Surviving H 188 mm

3969, 44, 11.1,

Cattle scapula (left), large part of blade missing but surviving pieces show trimming of edges and also wear. Spine also broken off.

Surviving H 177 mm

3986, 150, 12.4

Scapula fragment (right), head and most of blade missing. Spine has been largely removed and the surface is clearly smoothed, worn and glossed.

L 167 mm

Handles and Mounts


3009, 6, 7.1

Section of beam or large tine, hollowed out, chopped and sawn both ends. Decorated with incised line spiralling upwards around object. Smoothed and worn in places.

L72 mm; max W 36 mm; max T 25; min W 28 mm; min T 25 mm; Perforation at wider end 9 x 8 mm, narrower 17 x 13 mm

3436B, 298, 7.1

Antler tine fragment, hollowed out, one end chopped with series of angled cuts, other end damaged but some cuts visible.

L 78 mm; Dia 15-16mm max; int Dia 7 mm

3480, 207, 7.1

Antler tine, distal end faceted, tip also trimmed with angled cuts. Proximal end sawn? across and slightly hollowed.

L116 mm; prox end 21 x 24 mm; D of hollow 13 mm

3922, 664, 6.2

Small length of beam or large tine, hollowed out and one end very roughly chopped. Other end much smoother and more regular, poss sawn. Poss offcut from manufacture of handle or could be object in its own right.

H/L 19 mm; Dia 35 x 29 mm; Int Dia 14 x 17 mm

Cetacean bone

3587; 252, 5.2

Sword or dagger guard?, with rectangular central perforation 14 x 10.5 mm, ends tapering and then expanded and rounded. Very fibrous material, most of surface flaked and lost.

L 97 mm; max W 21.5 mm; max T 9 mm

3759, 730, 6.7

Pommel?, with crescentic incised decoration on both sides. Flattened oval shape, perforation tapering from one side to other, from 8.5 x 6mm to 6.5 x 6 mm.

L 51.5 mm; W 24.5 mm; T 18 mm

3487, 239, 6.1

Sub-rectangular object, one fe rivet in situ, one matching perforation with surrounding iron stain and one other offset perforation on one broken end. One long edge trimmed and original, other edge tapered, poss worn or broken. Mount.

L 84 mm; W 33 mm; T 6 mm; Perf Dia 6 mm

3973, 252, 5.2

Fragment of cetacean bone, roughly subrectangular, but all edges broken, with perforation on one edge, prob mount frag. Coarser, more open texture than other mount.

L 77 mm; W 27 mm; T 6 mm; Perf Dia 6 mm

3478A & B, 507, 7.1

Two pairs of joining fragments of narrow strips of whalebone. One is slightly narrower, though poss damaged along one side, with poss perforation on one end. B is slightly wider, with pit on one side, and two perforations on either edge at one end.

A - L 119 mm; W 13 mm; T 2.5 mm; Perf Dia 2.5 mm

B - L 133 mm; W 20.5 mm; T 5 mm

3435, 287, 7.1

Fragment of whalebone object, poss broken in half, roughly sub-rectangular with large subrectang perforation.

L 105 mm; W 47 mm; T 13 mm; Perf L 56.5 mm

Hollowed and perforated bones

3984A, 236, 1, 5

Section of fairly small bone, faceted and trimmed along length and one end cut. Poss handle for fine tool as some glossy polish from wear. Other end broken.

L 57 mm; Shaft Dia 14 x 10mm

3977A, 634, 6/6, 3

Cattle metacarpal, epiphysis unfused, large splinter missing prob post-depositional damage. One end intact, other end cut and smoothed. overall fairly smooth and worn, with some polish, and also covered with fine longitudinal and diagonal striations.

L 114 mm; Cut end 25 x 14mm

Working debris and roughouts


3029, US

Section of external surface of antler, with cancellous tissue trimmed away, chopped both ends.

L 51 mm; W 19-22 mm; T 7-9mm

3100A, 129, 9.2

Fragment of red deer skull with pedicle, encircling saw cuts visible on pedicle end. Some fine cuts on skull, but prob from butchery or skinning? rather than attempts to cut it as skull broken along lines of cranial sutures.

Skull fragment 80 x 64 mm; T 15 mm; Dia of pedicle 140mm

Cetacean Bone

3980, 293, 7.1

Small piece of cetacean bone, fairly solid material, triangular section. Prob just chip of waste material, from any activity involving cutting of whalebone from building to comb-making.

L 39 mm; max W 9 mm; max T 15mm


3086, 28, 7.3

Cattle metatarsal, distal end, shaft cut, but v poor condition and no working marks visible.

L 88 mm; Shaft Dia 23 x 23mm

3436A, 298, 7.1

Cattle metatarsal, proximal end, split longitudinally, poss as result of working, with deep groove marking off one section of shaft, and traces of another at the broken end. These grooves are V-shaped in section and are caused by repeated cutting and not sawing. This sectioned metapodia may represent waste from the production of parallelepiped dice.

L overall 106 mm; L of marked section 43.5 mm; W 22 mm; T 18.5mm

3960, 104, 10.5

Proximal end of cattle-size metapodial, also split longitudinally, but probably post-depositional damage. Other end shows poss saw cuts, but also three remaining sides have been trimmed down to produce squared profile and smooth, flat surfaces. Waste from production of parallelepiped dice.

L overall 42mm Trimmed W 22mm T 13mm

3981, 239, 6.1

Small fragment of long bone, with knife cuts on one side, poss from worked metapodia as above.

L 28 mm; W 18 mm; T 14mm

Pin/point roughouts

3023, 44, 11.1,

Bone or antler splinter, roughly cut, with stepped cuts from knife whittling down one side, other sides poss split.

L 71 mm; max W 5 mm; max T 5mm

3363, 279, 7/1, 3

Fragment of long bone, very roughly faceted, numerous small parallel strokes towards one end, possibly from file or rasp? Middle section better shaped, wider at ends.

L 130 mm; max W 9 mm; max T 6.5mm

3963, 263, 7.1

Fragment of long bone, trimmed down sides with faceting and stepped cuts. Some fine transverse cuts also across back.

L 64 mm; max W 11 mm; max T 8mm

3968, 44, 11.1

Bone splinter, roughly worked, one end end left wider, then length of shank worked, with slight step left at other end. Faceting on shank, knife cut.

L 77.5 mm; max W 9 mm; max T 4.5 mm; shank 4 x 4.5mm

3982, 278, 7.1

Splinter of long bone, triangular section, edges split but also some diagonal knife cuts on back and striations from knife blade on edges. Stepped cuts also

L 66mm max W x T 9 x 6mm

3796, 424, 9.2

Piece of cetacean bone, one end more heavily worked into smoothed and rounded tapering point (tip missing), rest of piece of triangular section and more roughly worked.

L 104.5 mm; max W 25 mm; max T 16mm


Long-handled comb fragment

3534, 239, 6.1

Handle fragment from fish-tailed long-handled comb of cetacean bone. Toothed end damaged, and possible damage along one side.

L 90 mm; max W 31 mm; max T 8mm

Composite combs: double-sided

3250, 236, 1, 5

Antler tooth plate from double-sided composite comb of Iron Age type, with a rivet hole on one edge. The teeth have beaded wear on both sides but appear to have been more heavily worn on one side, as they are considerably shorter than on the other

H 44 mm; W 15.5 mm; T 3.75 mm; Tooth spacing 7 per cm

3407, 292, 7.1

Antler tooth plate from double-sided composite comb, very similar in dimensions to 3250, and probably from the same comb. Rivet hole on one edge, teeth beaded, but not so unevenly worn as 3250. H 46 mm; W 11 mm; T 3.75 mm; Tooth spacing 7 per cm

3497, 239, 6.1

Fragment of bone or antler tooth plate, one edge damaged so difficult to tell whether single or double, but dimensions indicate that was probably double-sided, or even high-backed originally. Rivet hole on one edge which had bone peg in situ when found.

H 21 mm; W 14 mm; T 2.5 mm; 5 teeth per cm; Peg L 9.5 mm; Dia 3 x 4mm

3558, 564, 5.2

Section of antler double-sided composite comb, with 23 fragments of loose teeth. The end tooth plate is decorated with two ring and dot, and also has a suspension hole. The side plates are decorated with a single central line of ring and dot. Very few teeth remain intact, but saw cuts indicate a spacing of 7 per cm.

L 41 mm; max H 36 mm; T 10mm

3565, 566, 6/6, 3

Antler tooth plate from double-sided composite comb, with rivet hole on one edge. All teeth have been broken off. Very close similarity with 3250 and 3407, again poss from same comb, but slight differences in thickness and tooth spacing, here 6 per cm.

H 19.5 mm; L 19 mm; T 3mm

3700, 612, 6.2

End tooth plate from double-sided composite comb, of antler?. Suspension hole at end, and part of one iron rivet still in situ. Teeth graduated, ie increasing in length from the end.

H 54mm L 18mm T 3.75mm Tooth spacing 6 per cm

3598, 596, 6.2

Complete double-sided composite comb of antler. The end tooth plates protrude slightly beyond the side plates, and there is a suspension hole but no decoration and the end teeth are graduated. The teeth are unevenly cut and variable in size and spacing, ranging from 3.5 per cm to 4 per cm, relatively coarse, but more or less the same both sides. There are seven tooth plates, relatively narrow in width, varying from 11mm to 14.5mm. The number of teeth per plate also varies, although most have 5 teeth, one has 6 and one has 4. The iron rivets seem to fall in the centre of the plate rather than at the edge which is more usual. The side plates are flat and rectangular, although one is slightly more splayed than the other, and are decorated with alternate paired and single ring and dot, the single ring and dot falling between the iron rivets. The motif is quite deeply incised, and appears to be of a uniform diameter of 5.5mm. One of the elements appears to have started off in the wrong position and been abandoned and repositioned, as within the ring there is a shallow pit and beyond the ring is a segment of another ring, much more lightly incised. The side plates and teeth appear to have been finished off once the comb had been assembled, and the perforation may also have been drilled then, as the overlapping part of the side plate has also been cut. The teeth are lightly worn but not heavily beaded, and the completeness of the comb suggests that it was lost accidentally in a context from which it could not be easily recovered.

H 65 mm; L 99 mm; Side plates 28-27 x 90mm and 28-25 x 91 mm; Tooth plate widths (L to R) 13.75; 13; 16.5; 13.5; 11; 12; 14.5

Composite combs: single-sided

3494, 509, 7.1

Section of single-sided composite antler comb, all teeth broken off. Two iron rivets in place through edges of tooth plates. Side plates relatively flattened, and decorated with double line border of sawn/square section. Side plates decorated prior to assembly, saw cuts for teeth only intermittent.

L 29 mm; H 13 mm; T 9mm.

Loose comb teeth

3962, 211, 6.6

Three adjoining loose teeth, which don't appear to match any comb yet described, as they are much thicker and generally coarser than any yet encountered (apart from the big one).

H 20 mm; L 8.5 mm; max T 3.75

Comb case?

3971, 6, 7.1

Length of bone poss whalebone, burnt and calcined in places. Two parallel vertical incised lines off centre, and again at tapered end, there also incised diamond pattern. Flattened D-shape in cross section.

L 87.5 mm; W 18 mm; T 7mm

Dice and playing pieces


6002, 14, 7.4

Solid parallelepiped die, poss whalebone, ends slightly expanded. Values marked in single ring and dot, sequence 3;5;4;6. Ends have pattern (or values?) of four ring and dots set in square, and these have been done by a different tool as they are smaller than those on the other sides with a max Dia of 3.25mm. The value motifs are slightly elongated and measure 3.75 x 3mm. Stamped? The object has been burnt. Experimental rolling of the die (executed with extreme care) showed that out of 50 rolls the die gave the value 5 thirty-two times, 3 and 4 eight times each, and 6 only twice.

L 39 mm; W 8.25-9 mm; T 8.25-9mm

6004, 16A, 7.5

Solid parallelepiped bone die, burnt, one end slightly tapered. Prob whalebone. Very heavily worn, values marked in ring and dot, mostly just dot surviving, value sequence 3;5;4;6. One end of the value 6 has one single and two double ring and dot. Ends plain.

L 40 mm; W 9- 10 mm; T 9-10mm

3563, 577, 7.2

Parallelepiped die made from metapodial ie hollow. Value sequence 3;5;4;6, in double ring and dot, but sizes and spacing varies, from 2.75/5.75mm to 4/6.5 mm, and some circles incomplete also, ends overlapping.

L 43 mm; W 18 mm; T 17.75mm

3999, 16, 7.5

Four fragments of burnt bone, 3 with no discernible markings and one fragment of hollow parallelepiped die, representing part of the corner at one end. Single ring and dot visible on both sides, slightly elongated, L 5.5 mm, width not measurable.

L 23mm (incomplete); W 7 mm; T 3mm

6003, 16A, 7.5

Small burnt fragment of hollow parallelepiped bone die. Single ring and dot, much smaller than others at 3mm. One side remaining poss represents value 3.

L 23 mm; W 6-7mm

Playing pieces

3006, 15, 7.1

Cattle tooth from upper jaw, ground and polished all over, with one side flattened. Light and dark patterning v attractive, almost agate effect - deliberate?

Dia 22 x 21mm T 16mm

3308, 306, 10/2, 4

Cattle phalanx 1, trimmed on caudal surface and on peripheral surface, with knife cuts and transverse steps visible. Deep cuts just above proximal articulation emphasising shape. Some wear on proximal articulation poss indicating that it may have stood upright on this surface.

H 60 mm; max W 34 mm; max T 30mm

Metapodia sections

3053, 6, 7.1

Fragment of long bone, poss part of section similar to above, one end shows characteristic profile of cutting and snapping, other end damaged.

L 23 mm; W 23 mm; T 7.5mm

3315, 301, 10.1, 5

Section of long bone shaft, prob cattle-size metapodial. No cuts or other working marks visible, v heavily abraded and smoothed, also splitting rather badly.

L 52 mm; Shaft Dia 28.5 x 26.5mm

3437, 282, 7.1

Section of long bone shaft in very poor condition, surface flaking and heavily pitted, probably gnawed. May be cut length like others but also may be non-artefactual.

L 35 mm; Shaft Dia 22.5 x 18.5mm

3539, 533, 6.1

Section of long bone shaft, some cut marks towards one end, but otherwise no working marks visible. Surface v smooth and worn?

L 49.5 mm; Shaft Dia 22 x 17mm

3567, 590, 7.2

Section of long bone shaft, prob cattle metapodial, one end has been partially cut through and then snapped. Other end damaged and in poor condition.

L 32 mm; Shaft Dia 23.5 x 24mm

3757, 726, 7/6, 2

Section of long bone shaft, prob cattle-size metapodial. One end poss broken post-deposition, as only lightly covered in black spot. Other end smoothed and worn , but from profile can still see that it was partially cut through and then snapped. V similar to 3567, poss from same bone.

L 23 mm; Shaft Dia 22 x 22mm

3405, 249, 5.2

Sheep/goat tibia, faceted and chopped at one and and damaged at other. On the same side of the shaft, roughly centrally are two areas of wear, one shallower and one much deeper, which has worn into the bone and revealed the central cavity. L 95 mm; Dia max 16-17 mm, where worn 14 x 11.5mm


3680, 634, 6/4, 3

Whale tooth, upper end cut and perforated. Pit near perf may be first attempt at working abandoned, as v hard material and difficult to work. A fragment has sheared off the upper side, poss as a result of the perforation?

H 29 mm; W 22 mm; Perf Dia 3-3.5mm

6001, 730, 6.7

Ten bone beads (which were found together with 5 stone beads of similar style), of varying sizes. All very smooth and worn, no working marks visible, and identification v difficult.

Dimensions of beads : bone

D 12.5-13.5 mm; T 6-7 mm; Perf D 3 mm

D 8.5-9 mm; T4.75 mm; Perf D 3 mm

D 8.5-9 mm;.5 mm; 2.5 mm

D 8.5-8.75 mm; T 4.5 mm; Perf D 5 mm

D 8.5-8.5 mm; T 5 mm; Perf D 2.5 mm

D 8.5-8 mm; T 4-5 mm; Perf D 3 mm

D 8 mm; T 5 mm; Perf D 3 mm

D 8 mm; T 4 mm; Perf D 2.75 mm

D 8 mm; T 4.5 mm; Perf D 2.5 mm

D 7.75 mm; T 4 mm; Perf D 2.5-3 mm

Dimensions of beads : stone

D 25 mm; T 8.75 mm; Perf D 4 mm

D 11-11.5 mm; T 7 mm; Perf D 2.5 mm

D 10-10.5 mm; T 7 mm; Perf D 3 mm

D 10 mm; T 6-7 mm; Perf D 2.5 mm

D 8 mm; T 5 mm; Perf D 2 mm


3008, 61, 12.3

Whalebone object, one side smooth, other side cancellous tissue. One end cut, other end pointed, nearer to cut end is rounded expansion to one side with sub-rectangular perforation.

L 151 mm; at cut end W 20 mm; T 12.5 mm; expanding to W 30 mm; T 11 mm; Perforation min Dia 6.5 x 7mm

3042, 64, 12.3

Fragment of bone spoon?, one side v pitted and damage but longitudinal striations visible on back, here quite smooth, worn and glossy. Bowl of spoon flattened, prob limited by the type of bone available.

Bowl L 56 mm; W 33 mm; Stem 8 x 5 mm; overall L 85mm

3162, 5, US

Spatulate bone tool, roughly worked with numerous facets and stepped cuts, but overall gloss and polish on edge of blade indicates that it has been used. Asymmetrical blade, curved side worn, poss potting tool?

Overall L 112 mm; Dia of handle 7 mm; Blade W 14 mm; T 5mm

3231, 212, 5/4, 3

Bone knife?, made from flat bone such as rib, Shaped like a knife complete with blade and handle, end of handle broken. Only very tip of point glossed and worn, with some small scratches parallel to edge towards the tip.

L 148 mm; 'Blade' W 21 mm; T 2.5 mm; Handle 11.5mm x 2mm

3557, 543,

Probably modified femur head, poss cattle. Dome has been removed and smoothed around perforation and distal surface also trimmed and smoothed. Perforation slightly wider on distal surface.

Dia 33 mm; H 14.5 mm; Perf 8.5-9 and 9.5 mm; Wt 10.3g

3666, 652, 6.2

Complete sheep radius, with single perforation at each end. Perforations slightly irregular, one squared, edges softened and worn.

L 154 mm; max W 26 mm; max T 17 mm; Perf Dias 7 x 11.5 mm, 10 x 10mm