Cremated bone - K McSweeney

All finds numbers come from context 257, block 8.1.

Skull

5394 Three adjoining fragments of occipital with internal occipital protuberance, internal occipital crest and part of left lamboid suture. Because of the degree of distortion, reconstruction was not attempted. Seven cranial fragments with only one table. Largest fragment 30 mm long, the smallest 15 mm. Fifteen cranial fragments with both tables intact. Largest 36 mm x 11 mm, smallest 15 mm x 10 mm. Cranial thickness was approximately 4 mm. Five small fragments with unfused sutural edges. All approximately 25 mm x 15 mm. Two fragments of body of sphenoid. Fragment of temporal with internal auditory meatus? Fragment of lesser wing of sphenoid? Fragment of sphenoid?

5395 Two fragments of cranium with sutures still visible on external surface although obliterated, internally. Five fragments with sutural edges still unfused. Sixty-three fragments of cranium with only one table remaining, sizes ranging from 40 mm to 9 mm. Fifty fragments of cranium with both tables intact, ranging in size from 50 mm to 7 mm. Cranial wall thickness ranged between 5.90 mm and 3.40 mm. Fragment of left temporal with external surface of mastoid process, superior part of external auditory meatus and base of zygomatic process. Although incomplete, the mastoid process appears to be elongated and large and may belong to a male. Fragment of left temporal with part of squamous part, mandibular fossa, articular tubercle and zygomatic arch. Three fragments of petrous part of temporal, side indeterminate. Small fragment of mastoid process, side indeterminate. Left orbit/frontal process of zygoma with frontozygomatic suture. One fragment of zygomatic arch. Fragment of right basilar part of occipital with occipital condyle. Three fragments of temporal bone.Fragment of internal surface of frontal with frontal crest. Thirteen fragments of small facial bones. Four fragments of maxilla with tooth sockets, too small to identify exact provenance. Fragment of labial surface of right mandible with part of socket for molar. Socket very shallow. Third molar? Fragment of central mandible, 41mm long and consisting largely of the lingual surface only, with mental spines and sockets for both central and both lateral incisors, right canine, both premolars and first molar. Five fragments consisting of one surface of mandible with parts of tooth sockets, too small to identify exact provenance. Matching pair of right and left heads of mandible and rami. No evidence of arthritic wear on articular surfaces. One fragment of left mandibular arch. One fragment of ramus? Two fragments of greater horn of hyoid. Complete incus and malleus.

5396 Fragment of parietal with sagittal suture, which is almost fully obliterated. 43 mm x 21 mm. Nineteen fragments of cranium with only one table remaining. Sizes range from 44 mm to 15 mm. Eighteen fragments cranium with both tables intact, ranging in size from 27 mm to 10 mm. Cranial wall thickness averaged 3.8 mm. Three fragments with sutural edges still open. Probably temporomastoid suture. Size 15 mm to 18 mm long. Fragment of base of right zygomatic process with part of squamous area of temporal. Fragment of base of left zygomatic process with part of squamous area of temporal. Superior part of right external auditory meatus. Four fragments of petrous part of temporal, side indeterminate. Fragment of right upper orbit with frontozygomatic suture. Fragment of right orbit/frontal process of zygoma. Two fragments of zygomatic process. Small fragment of temporal bone. Ten fragments of small facial bones. One fragment of orbit? Piece of right maxilla with inferior corner of nasal cavity. The tips of the sockets of the canine and right lateral incisor are just visible at the inferior edge of the fragment. Small fragment of palate with parts of the sockets of two teeth. Small fragment of mandible with part of a tooth socket.

Dentition

5394 Incomplete upper molar, consisting of two roots, one broken, and part of crown, minus enamel. The apex of the complete root was closed. Incomplete root of an anterior tooth, probably canine. Three tiny tooth fragments.

5395 Small fragment of enamel from crown of molar? The roots from a matching pair of lower central incisors. Both apices were closed. Root lower lateral incisor? Apex closed. Roots of lower second molar, apices closed. Age over sixteen. Fragment of molar with two short, blunt roots. It would appear that there was a third root to this tooth and that this was an upper molar. Superior surface of tooth does not appear to have fractured with the heat as the other teeth. The upper surface, just above the cemento-enamel junction but with pulp cavity exposed, is smooth and polished, suggesting extreme attrition. Root and part crown of upper molar, second or third. Apices closed giving an age at death of over sixteen. Root of canine?. Apex closed. Ten fragments of various roots. Two root fragments with apices closed.

5396 Eight tiny tooth fragments. Root of incisor (lower central?). Apex closed. Roots of three anterior teeth, apices closed. Roots and part of pulp cavity of lower second molar. Apices closed, age over sixteen. A good match for lower second molar in 5395 above. Roots and crown, minus enamel of upper second molar. Apices closed, age over sixteen.Incomplete tooth, probably an upper molar consisting of two short, stumpy, fused roots and part of crown. Upper surface of crown is rounded, smooth and polished and appears to have been worn down rather than broken off. If so, wear is angled and has reached below pulp chamber. Nature of wear is very similar to that mentioned in 5395 above and this is a probable match, which strengthens the argument for severe attrition. None of the other teeth display the same degree of wear.

Spine

5394 Small fragment of lamina. Small fragment of body of vertebra. Fragment of body of cervical vertebra? Two fragments of arch of atlas? One fragment of vertebral spine. Eight fragments with articular facets.

5395 Left side of atlas with superior and inferior articular facets. Part of dens of axis. Some arthritic lipping on superior part of the facet for articulation with atlas. Thirty-three fragments of vertebra with articular facets/transverse processes. No osteophytic formation noted. Upper part of first body of sacrum with moderate osteophytic lipping around posterior edge of body. Unclear whether fusion between first and second body had taken place. Although the superior surface of the body appeared wide, as it is not complete and cannot be compared with overall sacral width, is not sexually diagnostic. Two fragments of body of cervical vertebra with epiphyseal ring fused. No arthritic lipping. Eight tiny fragments of bodies of vertebrae with epiphyseal ring fused and no lipping. Two small fragments of edges of vertebral bodies with slight to moderate arthritic lipping. Two vertebral spines.

5396 Lamina and superior articular processes of lumbar or lower thoracic vertebra.Small fragment of lamina. Thirty-three fragments of facets/transverse processes. Six tiny fragments of body of vertebrae. Fragment of body of first thoracic vertebra. Epiphyseal ring fused and slight osteophytic lipping around inferior edge of body.Fragment of body of cervical vertebra. Epiphyseal ring fused. No arthritic lipping. Fragment of body of cervical vertebra. Epiphyseal ring fused. Slight osteophytic lipping around inferior edge. Two small fragments of edges of vertebral bodies with slight to moderate osteophytic lipping. These fragments are not from the neck area although their exact provenance is not clear.

Scapula

5394 Fragment of right spine and acromion. A match for the left described in 5395 below. Fragment of lateral border.

5395 Inferior angle of right scapula. Part of glenoid cavity, spine and acromion of left scapula. Glenoid epiphysis fused. Fragment of lateral border. Three fragments of border of scapula? Fragment of spine of acromion.

5396 No fragments of scapula identified.

Ribs

5394 Nine fragments of shaft of rib.

5395 Four fragments with tubercles. Forty-one fragments of rib shaft, mostly slivers.

5396 Three fragments of tubercles. Thirty-five fragments of rib shaft.

Pelvis

5394 Two fragments of body of ilium.

5395 Two fragments of body of ilium. Fragment of ilium with part of auricular surface. Two fragments of superior ramus of pubis. Two fragments of sciatic notch, too small to be sexually diagnostic.

5396 Four fragments of body of ilium. Fragment of sciatic notch, not sexually diagnostic. Fragment of anterior superior iliac spine. Epiphysis fused. Fragment of acetabulum.

Longbones

5394 Sliver of shaft of humerus, 92mm long. Fragment of humerus shaft. Fragment of femoral shaft with linea aspera. Fragment of neck of femur. Two fragments shaft of ulna. Two fragments of shaft of fibula. Forty fragments of shafts of various longbones. Distal end right fibula, epiphysis fused. Match for left from 5396. Fragment of head of radius, epiphysis fused. Four fragments of condyles of femur, epiphyses fused. Incomplete patella, side indeterminate.

5395 Section of humerus, 96 mm long and grossly distorted. Five slivers of shaft of humerus. Three fragments of shaft of tibia. Three fragments of shaft of ulna? Eighty-one fragments of shafts of various longbones. Distal end and part shaft of ulna. Epiphysis fused. Two fragments of head of humerus, not measurable and therefore not sexually diagnostic. Epiphysis fused. Two fragments of head of either humerus or femur. Epiphyses fused. Piece of distal articulation of femur. Fragment of proximal end of tibia.

5396 Section of shaft of humerus, 85 mm long, greatly distorted. Capitulum of left humerus, epiphysis fused. Two fragments of shaft of humerus. Four fragments of shaft of tibia. One fragment of shaft of femur. Fragment of head and neck of radius, epiphysis fused. One fragment of lower end of shaft of ulna. Small fragment of neck area of ulna. Distal end of left fibula, epiphysis fused. Clear match for right in 5394. Two fragments of proximal articulation of tibia, epiphysis fused. Fragment of trochlear notch of ulna. Seventyone fragments of shafts of various longbones.

Hands and Feet

5394 Palmar section of trapezoid. (Part of wrist). Two fragments of shafts of phalanges from hand or foot.

5395 Almost complete terminal phalanx (hand). Distal portion of terminal phalanx of first digit (thumb). Fragment of base of terminal phalanx, probably hand. Almost complete terminal phalanx of foot. Base of proximal phalanx of big toe. Two fragments of two heads of great toe. Five fragments of five heads of metacarpals or metatarsals. Two fragments of carpal bones. (One appears to be part of a triquetral). Fragment of tarsal bone, probably either medial cuneiform or navicular. Five incomplete shafts of metacarpals or metatarsals.Incomplete shafts of two phalanges of hand or foot.

5396 Two fragments of posterior surface of calcaneus. One fragment of head of talus. Fragment of lunate (wrist). Fragment of pisiform. Two sesamoid bones? Two fragments of carpals. Fragment of head of first metatarsal (great toe). Fragment of base of first metatarsal. Five fragments of heads of metacarpals/metatarsals. Terminal phalanx of first digit (thumb). Two terminal phalnges of the hand. Shaft of middle phalanx of the hand with very marked attachments for the flexor muscles of the hand. Two phalanges consisting of head and part shaft. Three of heads of phalanges. Fragment of base of second metacarpal. Six fragments of bases of phalanges of hands or feet. Six fragments of shafts of metacarpals/metatarsals. Five fragments of shafts of phalanges?