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The Anglo–German co-operation underlying this project has greatly benefited from generous support given to the two main research centres at Cardiff University and the Universität-Gesamthochschule Paderborn. The Cardiff team, based in the Centre for Editorial and Intertextual Research (CEIR), has been supported for the duration of the project by a two-year Larger Research Grant from the British Academy, which provided funds to help employ Anthony Mandal as main researcher, as well as supporting travel between Cardiff and Paderborn and a series of visits to major holding libraries within Britain. Research at Cardiff has also benefited substantially through the general support given by the School of English, Communication and Philosophy at Cardiff (ENCAP) in the form of administrative support, equipment, and library purchases. Among fellow members of staff and colleagues who have offered help and advice are Jacqueline Belanger, Tom Dawkes, Tim Killick, Sharon Ragaz, and David Skilton.

     The Paderborn Novel Project is especially indebted to the owner of the Fürstliche Bibliothek Corvey, Franz Albrecht von Metternich-Sándor, Herzog von Ratibor und Fürst von Corvey, who opened his library for international scholarship, to his son Erbprinz Viktor, and the general administration at Schloß Corvey. The Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, generously provided financial support for the cataloguing and microfiching of the Corvey Library, which in turn led to participation in the present bibliography. Grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) funded visits to Great Britain as well as research assistance. The Universität Paderborn provided general administrative help. Thanks are also due to Günter Tiggesbäumker, Hartmut Steinecke, Stephanie Junger, and Thorsten Liß for help and advice.

     The compilers would also like to offer special thanks to the following librarians and curators for facilitating their researches and answering queries: Iain Beavan (Aberdeen University Library); Michael Bott (University of Reading Library); Chris Fletcher, John Goldfinch (British Library); Mr J. J. Hall (University Library, Cambridge); Michael Richardson (University of Bristol Library); Christopher Skelton-Foord (Bodleian Library); Daniel J. Slive (University of California Library, Los Angeles). They are also grateful to the British Library for permission to cite and quote from the Bentley Papers; and also for permission to publish materials from the Longman archives held at Reading University. Special thanks are also due to Claire Connolly, Gillian Hughes, Fionnula Dillane, and Annika Bautz, who consulted material in (respectively): the Houghton and Widener libraries, Harvard; Princeton University Library; Trinity College, Dublin and the National Library of Ireland, and Newcastle University Library. Individual assistance was also provided by David Hewitt, in supporting work at Aberdeen, and Meiko O’Halloran. Throughout the project close contact has also been maintained with Rolf Loeber and Magda Stouthamer Loeber, whose ongoing work in compiling a Bibliography of Irish Fiction has fed into the present project in a number of beneficial ways.

ABBREVIATIONS

* No copy of first edition located
? doubtful
// paragraph break
ABu Aberdeen University Library
adv. advertisement/advertised
Bentley MS List Bentley Papers, vol. lxxviii: Publication List, vol. i (BL Add MSS 46,637): 1829–1837
BI Britain and Ireland
BL British Library
Blanck Jacob Blanck, et al., A Bibliography of American Literature, 10 vols. (New Haven, 1955–93)
BLC British Library Catalogue
BLPC British Library Public Catalogue (online)
Block Andrew Block, The English Novel 1740–1850: A Catalogue including Prose Romances, Short Stories, and Translations of Foreign Fiction (London, 1939; revised 1961; reprinted 1968)
BP A List of the Principal Publications Issued from New Burlington Street during the Year 1830 (London: Richard Bentley and Son, 1893)
BRu ENC Bristol University Library, Early Novels Collection
c. circa
C Cambridge University Library
CBEL3 The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature, 3rd edn., vol. 4: 1800–1900, ed. Joanne Shattock (Cambridge, 1999)
CFu University of Wales Cardiff
CLU-S/C Special Collections, University of California, Los Angeles
CME Corvey Microfiche Edition
Corvey Corvey, Fürstliche Bibliothek zu Corvey
D National Library of Ireland, Dublin
d. died
DLC Library of Congress, Washington DC
DNB Dictionary of National Biography
Dt Trinity College Library, Dublin
E National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh
ECB English Catalogue of Books 1801–1836, ed. Robert Alexander Peddie and Quintin Waddington (London, 1914; Kraus Reprint, New York, 1963)
ed. edited
edn. edition
EN2 The English Novel 1770–1829, vol. II: 1800–1829, ed. Peter Garside and Rainer Schöwerling (Oxford, 2000)
ER Edinburgh Review
FC Victoria Blain, Isobel Grundy, and Patricia Clements (eds.), The Feminist Companion to Literature in English (London, 1990)
fl.  floruit
ill. illustrated
LG Literary Gazette
lib/libs library/libraries
Longman Archives Archives of the House of Longman, Reading University
MC The Morning Chronicle
MH Harvard University
MH-H Houghton Library, Harvard University
MS manuscript
N&Q Notes & Queries
NA North America
NCu Newcastle upon Tyne University Library
n.d. no date
NjP Princeton University
n.p. no place of publication
n.s. new series
NSTC Nineteenth-Century Short-Title Catalogue: Series I, 1801–1815, 6 vols. (1984–86); Series II, 1816–1870, 56 vols. (1986–95); CD-ROM (1996); Series III, 1871–1919 on CD-ROM (2002)
NUC National Union Catalog
O Bodleian Library, Oxford
OCLC OCLC FirstSearch WorldCat Catalogue (online)
p.c. private copy
pseud.  pseudonym
RLF The Royal Literary Fund 1790–1918: Archives (London: World Microfilms, 1984): references are to reel and case number
ser. series
Sadleir Michael Sadleir, XIX Century Fiction: A Bibliographical Record based on his own Collection, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1951)
s.l.  spine label
Star The Star; later The Albion and Star
Summers Montague Summers, A Gothic Bibliography (London, [1940]; reprinted 1969)
t.p. title-page
trans. translation
trans. translator
unn. unnumbered
vol. volume
Wolff Robert Lee Wolff, Nineteenth-Century Fiction: A Bibliographical Catalogue, 5 vols. (New York, 1981–6)
xNSTC not entered in the Nineteenth-Century Short-Title Catalogue
xOCLC not entered in OCLC FirstSearch Catalogue WorldCat

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Peter Garside

1.       SCOPE AND PROCEDURE
This Bibliographical Survey, covering the years 1830–1836 inclusive, follows in the wake of The English Novel 1770–1829: A Bibliographical Survey of Prose Fiction Published in the British Isles, 2 vols. (Oxford, 2000). Like that bibliography its entries are taken wherever possible from first-hand examination of surviving copies of original first editions. The period here covered links Walter Scott’s last published novel, Tales of My Landlord, 4th series (1832), with Charles Dickens’s Sketches by ‘Boz’ (1836–7), his first work of fiction to be published as an entity. Often considered to be something of a hiatus, and so far having only encouraged one overview critical study, [1] the period under survey can now been seen as one of variety and richness, marked rather by diversification than any sustained upsurge in new titles, and exhibiting a number of transformations in the production and marketing of the novel. Leading up to the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837, this bibliography also offers another vital step towards the building of a comprehensive record of British fiction in the nineteenth century.

     From the inception of the project, the compilers were conscious of entering into territory likely to present new challenges and unexpected difficulties. As is stated in the conclusion to the Historical Introduction to the second volume of The English Novel 1770–1829, the year 1829 marks a watershed in the production of fiction in Britain, with a fuller realization of an extended middle-class market, as evident in the success of the Magnum Opus collected edition of Scott’s Waverley Novels, launched as a monthly publication from June that year. This in turn provided the model for Colburn and Bentley’s Standard Novels series, offering cheap one-volume editions of recently published novels, commencing with James Fenimore Cooper’s The Pilot in February 1831 at the price of 6s. (By December 1836, this series, now appearing under Bentley’s name alone, had reached its 56th volume.) A considerable amount of energy during the period evidently went into the production of such sets and series, ranging from compilations of older works of fiction, such as the Novelist’s Library, edited by Thomas Roscoe, planned as a classic collection, to the innovatory Library of Romance, edited by Leitch Ritchie, whose aim was to provide a regular supply a new works of fiction by leading contemporary writers, and which commenced with the Banims’ Ghost-Hunter and his Family (see 1833: 9).

     Another salient feature of these years is the increasing practice of publishing original fiction in numbers and through serialization in periodicals. The interchange between novel production and magazines containing significant amounts of fiction, such as Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine and the Metropolitan Magazine, as well as the new-style annuals and keepsakes, also becomes more variegated and in bibliographical terms problematic. One noticeable symptom here is the proportionately large increase in the output of works of fiction consisting of a variety of individual tales and sketches, a number of which openly acknowledge a source in periodicals of the time. Prior serialization in magazines also led in some cases to a situation where a work appeared in book form first in North America, the text having been pirated from the magazine version, before the first ‘official’ British edition: notable instances here are Captain Marryat’s Jacob Faithful (see 1834: 48) and Peter Simple (see 1834: 49), and Samuel Warren’s Passages from the Diary of a Late Physician (see 1832: 86). Other manifestations of a transformational fiction market include compilations of shorter fiction, usually presented as edited by one person, such as Andrew Picken’s The Club-Book (see 1831: 56), which contained new writing by John Galt, James Hogg, and others, and the onset of the ‘Penny Dreadful’ in the last two years under view, whose small fragmented units and sensationalist contents again throw out new bibliographical challenges over inclusion and description.

     As in the two volumes of The English Novel 1770–1829, the main part of the present Checklist consists of annual listings of novels as first published in Britain and Ireland during the seven years covered. These annual lists are reserved for what are considered in a suitably broad sense to represent works of adult prose fiction, and as a whole 610 entries will be found therein, to which a further 138 titles are added in the Appendices, making a sum total of 748. The criteria for inclusion generally match those employed while compiling the second volume of The English Novel, one result of this being that it is possible to make direct comparisons on fronts such as the number of new titles issued annually. Works published in series such as the Standard Novels are generally not included except in cases where there is no prior record of publication. The individual works published in Ritchie’s Library of Romance, on the other hand, are given entries under the appropriate year, as representing new works of fiction. In the case of three series of original titles produced by Harriet Martineau during the period, however, it has been decided to supply the record in the form a separate Appendix (1), partly in view of the specially programmatic nature of their contents, and also to avoid the 34 titles involved unbalancing the main listings. Number publications are included in the main listings granted there is clear evidence of a subsequent sale in book form, and it is the completed form that provides the entry, though details of constituent parts and evidence of prior serialization will often be found in the notes to the entry.

     In searching for potential titles in the earlier stages of the project, a wide net was cast in a number of directions. Initial lists were drawn up from various secondary sources, these including Andrew Block’s English Novel, 1740–1850 and Montague Summers’s Gothic Bibliography, both used guardedly owing to their sprawling and irregular nature, as well as the bibliographically reliable catalogues of collections of nineteenth-century fiction assembled by Michael Sadleir and Robert Lee Wolff. [2] Contemporary listings have also proved an invaluable source, and trawls have been made through the lists of new publications in the Edinburgh Review and Literary Gazette, and the advertisements and notices in two newspapers, The Star and The Morning Chronicle. Amongst modern resources, the procedure has involved isolation of all titles given Dewey decimal classification as fiction in the Nineteenth-Century Short-Title Catalogue (823 English Fiction, etc.), as well as a variety of electronic searches through the OCLC FirstSearch WorldCat online database (OCLC). Full searches were conducted in specialist collections of fiction at Bristol and Aberdeen universities, the latter consisting to a large degree of novels in their original boards. Once more, too, the unique collection of novels at Schloss Corvey in Germany has served as a mainstay both in terms of searching titles and recording details from original copies for the entries. Throughout the bibliography, 330 of the entries assembled describe a copy held in the Corvey library, the large proportion occurring in the imprint years 1830–4, that is prior to the death of Victor Amadeus, Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg, the main collector, in 1834.

     The search for original editions not held by Corvey (or, in a few instances, where the Corvey copy is imperfect) has mainly been conducted in leading British libraries. One considerable factor has been the much more extensive holdings of the British Library for this period, compared with the earlier years of the nineteenth century. Some 309 of the entries are taken from copies in the British Library, and the project is much indebted to the efficiency of service provided at St Pancras and the special consideration given to our researchers. Owing to the concentration of resources, and the state of copies found there, the Aberdeen holdings also offered an efficient way of examining copies for some 35 entries. Novels not found in the above sources have been searched and recorded in the Bodleian Library, Cambridge University Library, the National Library of Ireland, the National Library of Scotland, Newcastle University Library, and Trinity College, Dublin. Where the British libraries failed to yield a copy the project turned to North America, and the entries will show a few cases of copies recorded at the libraries at Harvard, Princeton, and University of California, Los Angeles. In only ten instances has it been necessary to reconstitute entries from secondary sources, as a result of not being able to locate any surviving copy.

     One remaining special feature of this Checklist, compared with its predecessors, is the extensive number of titles included in Appendix 2 (104 works in all), which is reserved for titles which failed, albeit often narrowly, to match the criteria used for inclusion into the main annual listings. This itself reflects the proliferation of sub-genres such as juvenile fiction at this period, as well as an overlapping with related non-fictional modes, and beyond that no doubt the diversification of the readership for fiction. A brief rationale for inclusion under one of the various sub-headings of this Appendix will be found in its main header, though inevitably some of the decisions made over exclusion from the main listings and positioning within the sub-sections have been of a hair-line nature. Unlike the final Appendix in volume 2 of The English Novel, the present equivalent Appendix is not selective in principle but is meant to display as full a record as possible of the types included. Items that normally have not been given entries in either the main listings or appendices include children’s fiction (pre-puberty), chapbooks and tracts, very short tales, miscellanies (those consisting predominantly of essays, poetry, and/or sketches), and periodical works (including annuals, gift books, and uncollected serial works). Many such works have nevertheless been examined in the course of the project’s searches, or in a few instances some putative titles have been found to be non-existent ‘ghost’ titles or to belong to another period—these ‘rejects’ amounting as a whole to 322 items (of which a list has been retained).

2.          READING THE ENTRIES

Arrangement
In the main listings entries are listed chronologically by year of imprint. Within each year, anonymous works whose authors have not been identified are arranged alphabetically by title, and precede entries for novels by known authors and/or translators, ordered alphabetically by author’s name, or by the pseudonymous name where the author’s proper name has not been discovered. In the case of compilations, the editor’s name is given, though the authorship of individual constituent pieces where known is supplied in the ‘Notes’ field of entries. Where an element of doubt remains about an attribution a question mark is placed before the author name (or alternative names where there is more than one claimant for authorship). Entries for authors with several works in one year are ordered alphabetically by title, though evidence can normally found within the entry itself about the precise chronology. In those few cases where it is difficult to determine which of two editions or translations of a novel were issued first, separate (a) and (b) entries are supplied. Novels with volumes bearing different imprint years are not normally separately entered under the respective years of publication, unless, for example, a significant break took place in the publication or a new series of the title is clearly indicated. On this latter basis, separate entries are provided for both Mary Russell Mitford’s Our Village, ‘fourth series’ (1830) and ‘volume V’ (1832), as for the second series of William Nugent Glascock’s Naval Sketch Book (1834). The arrangement of the appendices follows the same chronological and alphabetical procedures as the main listings, though imprint years do not provide separate headings.

     Cross-referencing within the entries has mainly been used as a means of signalling: a) publication over different calendar years, with markers from years other than the one where the entry is placed; b) cases of contested or multiple authorship, where the alternative authors are not apparent in the alphabetical ordering; c) the appearance or announcement of the same novel under different titles in the first year of publication. Alternative names by which a single author might now be known are generally not indicated in this way, the name chosen for the entries normally being that which an author published under or was known by during the years under examination, though cross-references (e.g. from married names, or aristocratic titles) are provided in the Author Index, which also lists pseudonyms with cross-references to real author names where known.

     Where no surviving copy of a novel in its original edition has been discovered, and its title and publication details have been reconstituted from secondary evidence, the reconstituted entry is marked with an asterisk * before the title and the absence of any located copy is noted in the line reserved for shelf-marks and catalogues. Where not already explicit, sources are given for the various elements of the reconstitution.

Components of each entry
A standard entry consists of the following eight ‘fields’:

    1. Entry number
    2. Author name(s)
    3. Full title
    4. Place of publication and imprint details
    5. Pagination, format, and price
    6. Contemporary listings
    7. Location and shelf-mark of copy examined and references to other catalogues and copies
    8. Notes

i)        ENTRY NUMBER
In the main listings, numbering starts freshly with each year. Individual entries numbers consist of year followed by sequential number (e.g. 1835: 57), and these numbers both head the entries and are also cited for cross-referencing and in the indexes. Within the two appendices, the same principle applies, with sub-section letter followed by sequential number (e.g. A: 17, D: 4); a full citation in these cases also includes the appendix number (e.g. Appendix 2, C: 7).

ii)          AUTHOR NAME(S)
Each entry opens with the name(s) of the author, editor, or translator, where known. Unless bracketed, names are given as they appear on the title-page. Square brackets are used to denote information supplied by outside information. Additions which help complete names, supplied through researched information (e.g. a fuller or extra Christian name), are likewise given in square brackets. In instances where information is found within the text (e.g. a signature at the end of a preface), but is not displayed on the title-page, this is denoted by the use of surrounding curly brackets—as, for example, in BRAY, {A}[nna] {E}[liza], in which case the title-page attribution is to ‘Mrs. Bray’, but the Introduction is signed ‘A. E. B’. ‘Mr’, Mrs’, and ‘Miss’ are omitted, unless these are the only qualification to the surname or indication of gender. Where no author has been identified, the entry opens with ‘ANON.’. In some cases where evidence concerning the authorship is not conclusive, information about possible attributions can be found in the notes field, with references to names also being given in the Author index. Translators and editors are treated similarly to authors, with the additions of ‘(trans.)’ and ‘(editor)’ immediately after the names: author names always have sequential priority. A pseudonymous name is followed by ‘[pseud.]’, with doubt as to whether the name is real or not being indicated by ‘[pseud.?]’

iii)      FULL TITLE
The title is given in full as it appears on the title-page, with block capitals being used throughout, no attempt being made to replicate peculiar fonts and combinations of letters found in the originals. Mottoes and special headers are generally excluded, though the notes often pick up on special features of interest. In the case of works appearing as a part of a series, the series title-page (where extant) is also transcribed in full in the notes. Where an engraved title-page is found in addition to a standard (conventionally printed) title-page, the latter is transcribed to make the entry, though any significant variants or additional features in the engraved title are recorded in the notes. Use of ‘[sic]’ to indicate features such as idiosyncratic spellings is sparing; and in a few cases, especially where misreading is possible,  supplementary punctuation is supplied is square brackets. Where variations are found between the titles of the different volumes of a novel, the differences are recorded in the notes section.

iv)      PLACE OF PUBLICATION AND IMPRINT DETAILS
The first-named place of publication on the original imprint is given first, followed (after a colon) by the full details of publishers, booksellers, and printers as they appear on the title-page up to the imprint date. A comma separates this information from the date, which is always given in arabic numerals even when in roman on the original. Where a place of publication is not named on the imprint but is inferred or researched from other information, this is given in square brackets. Where no date is given on the title-page the abbreviation n.d. (no date) is used, followed by an attributed date in square brackets. With multi-volume works the first volume normally supplies the details, and any differences found in the imprint information in other volumes is recorded in the notes. In the case of different years of publication between volumes of the same work, this is presented in the form of a split date at the end of the line, for example ‘1834/36’. Printer details not found within the imprint itself are not recorded in this field, though details found elsewhere in colophons and other printer marks (say, on the verso of the title-page) are systematically recorded in the notes section (see below).

v)          PAGINATION, FORMAT, AND PRICE
The last roman and arabic page of each volume is given, with instances where both types of pagination are continuous being recorded in the notes. These page numbers are preceded, in the case of multi-volume novels, by the volume number in upper-case roman. Where volumes of the same work bear different imprint dates this is indicated in parenthesis after the volume numbers. Illustrations are abbreviated as ‘ill.’, and are signalled after the page number, separated by a comma: normally this is reserved for cases where pictorial images are involved, vignettes consisting only of a design not normally being counted as illustrations. Where pagination information is unavailable because no copy has survived, the number of volumes only is indicated.

     The format of each copy examined has been individually checked by collation of leaves. Whereas in the period 1770–1829 the majority of novels were published either in octavo (8vo) or duodecimo (12mo) formats, with gatherings respectively of eight or twelve leaves, the increasing use of the smaller 18mo and 16mo formats in the period under view has led to fresh complications. Copies in 18mo examined often collate in sixes, but sometimes in twelves and sixes, whereas 16mo generally collates in eights. A main indication in these cases then is that page sizes are smaller than would be expected for 8vos or for 12mos in half-sheets. Due consideration has been taken of this factor in making decisions, though because of the variations found between copies of the same work, owing to cropping and other factors, no record of page diameters has been given in the entries. Secondary sources such as contemporary listings sometimes give useful information about format, but because of its variable quality this has at best been used guardedly.

     Price is given in shillings (s) and pence (d) as found in the work itself or in newspapers and other listings, with the accompanying description where found (most commonly ‘in boards’). Sources for the information are also given, in parenthesis, these including spine label (s.l.), MC, LG, ER, and ECB. All variants are provided.

vi)          CONTEMPORARY LISTINGS
Unlike in the preceding printed volumes of The English Novel, no attempt is made to record surviving reviews, a task made all the more difficult by the increasing diversification of reviewing outlets and methods during this period. As an alternative, this field in its present form records details from a variety of contemporary listings, which offer invaluable information on matters such as impression numbers, price, and (most pertinent here) dates of first publication. Four categories of record are provided, in the following order: publishing records (the Bentley Papers and Longman Archives); newspaper notices (The Star and Morning Chronicle); listings of new works from periodicals (the Literary Gazette and Edinburgh Review); and, finally, The English Catalogue of Books, 1800–1836 (ECB). A typical entry then might look like: BP (1 Jan 1832); Star (2 Jan 1832); LG 780: 842 (31 Dec 1831); ER 54: 560 (Dec 1831); ECB 84 (Dec 1831). In the case of entries from newspapers, The Star is used as the main source until its demise in 1835, the Morning Chronicle serving as its replacement for 1836 and as a source in 1835 when information from The Star is absent or less accurate. The entry given from newspapers is the first considered to give an indication of the publication date of the work, though other information gleaned from this source (such as advance notices) is provided in the notes section. In the case of periodicals, the information is taken from the list of ‘New Books/ Publications’ found near the end of the weekly issues of the Literary Gazette and the quarterly numbers of the Edinburgh Review. For pinpointing dates of publication, then, one might expect a diminishing chance of precision as the entries proceed, with the exception of ECB which in these last years that it records is more focused than previously.

vii)   LOCATION AND SHELF-MARK OF COPY EXAMINED AND REFERENCES TO OTHER CATALOGUES AND COPIES
This field always begins with an abbreviation for the library holding the copy of the novel examined (or statement of inability to locate a copy), followed by the holding library’s press-mark. In the case of novels held by the Corvey library, where no current catalogue numbers exist, the ISBN of the Corvey Microfiche Edition (CME) is given as the most useful identifying call number. In a handful of instances, where the Corvey copy is incomplete or otherwise imperfect (e.g. lacks a subscription list), alternative copies have been sought to provide the entry, the presence of a copy in Corvey in these cases being signalled by the inclusion of the CME ISBN number after the shelf-mark of the actual contributing library. (In a few cases, where no CME exists for the Corvey copy used, the library alone is signalled, though if a CME number for same title in a subsequent edition is available the reference number is supplied under ‘Further Editions’ at the end of the entry.)

     Details are then given from two leading modern database catalogues of printed books and holding libraries: the Nineteenth-Century Short-Title Catalogue (NSTC) and OCLC FirstSearch WorldCat Catalogue (OCLC). In both instances, a reference number is given first, followed by information about the number of holding libraries in parenthesis. Where NSTC includes more than one number for the same item (under both author and title, for example), the number cited is normally the one based on author, or, failing that, the largest of the entries. NSTC, which itself is based on library catalogues, at this phase records holdings from six British and Irish libraries and two major North American libraries:

British Library; University Library, Cambridge; Trinity College, Dublin; National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh; University of Newcastle Library; Bodleian Library, Oxford; Library of Congress, Washington; Harvard University.

The library holdings given in parenthesis relate to these institutions only, and are ordered alphabetically by abbreviation, with British and Irish (BI) libraries first, followed by North American (NA) ones. In each entry, the holding libraries given are amalgamated from all NSTC entries for the work.

     OCLC entries differ slightly by giving the accession number for the record chosen followed by the number of holding libraries in parenthesis: e.g. OCLC 42447732 (42 libs). In a number of cases, more than one OCLC record is available for what is in all probability the same original edition, and in these cases the policy has been to choose the more substantial record, granted its details unequivocally match the edition being described for the entry. Because of the complexity of the situation sometimes found, no attempt has been made to amalgamate the numbers of holding libraries given in different records. Where the OCLC record used applies only to microform copies of the work, this is recorded. Unlike NSTC, OCLC is a database which is being constantly updated and enlarged, and the details supplied apply to the period 2002–3 when the present entries were being assembled.

     When one of the libraries specified in NSTC provides the actual copy consulted for the entry (and is thus given with shelf-mark at the beginning of the entry), that library is omitted from the holding libraries abbreviated later in parenthesis. xNSTC and xOCLC indicate that a novel in the edition used for the entry (in all normal circumstances the first edition) is not included in NSTC/OCLC.

vii)     NOTES
The notes section is not used to record information comprehensively, but is intended primarily to supply readers with additional information of interest, including for example details of dedications, subscription lists, and advertisements within the novels. In the case of translations from another language, basic details are provided of the original source text and date and place of publication. Additional information about authorship is also placed near the beginning of this section, with reasons for new attributions and explanations of difficulties encountered in ascription. Details concerning the actual copy of the work examined generally follow the arrangement of its contents, while further notes are given in much the same order as other parts of the full entry. Information concerning impression numbers, as found in publishing archives, for example, are generally found near the end of the main notes section.

     In two particular areas the notes make an advance compared with the previous printed Bibliography, covering 1770–1829. In view of the relatively high proportion of works of fiction incorporating a variety of separate tales, an effort has been made to record in some detail the titles of the constituent items and the inclusive page numbers in which they are contained. In giving the pagination of tales within works, the beginning of the tale is counted from the individual subordinate title-page (where this appears); and normally the wording of a tale’s title is given from the header of the tale itself, rather than the contents list. The other advance is that a systematic effort has been made in the notes to record printer information as found in colophons and other printer’s marks outside the main imprint. In the case of London printers, a degree of standardization has taken place, with the suppression of recurrent details such as ‘London’ and ‘Printed by’ from the description given, some ironing out of accidentals such as hyphens and initial capitals, and (where there are variations in detail within a work) utilization generally of the fullest form found. In the case of non-London printers, where a place other than London is given this is included in the description: e.g. Printer’s mark reads: ‘Dumfries: Printed by John M‘Diarmid and Co.’, with similar colophon. Where colophons and printer’s marks of different printers are found between the different volumes of a work, indicating (say) that it was parcelled out between more than one firm, this is also recorded in detail. Where no printer information is found (other than in the main imprint), this is usually noted.

     Also listed are further editions of the novel published up to 1870. In identifying these, NSTC and OCLC have both played a major part, though additional information has also been supplied by reliable sources such as the published records of the collections of Michael Sadleir and Robert Lee Wolff, and occasionally through hands-on work in existing library collections. Up to five further editions published in Britain and Ireland are listed, with supporting references in appendices (in those cases where xOCLC or xNSTC has been recorded in the main entry, a full reference number is also given for the first British or Irish edition to found in those resources). Places of publication for further editions are recorded where they differ from that of the main entry. Where more than five editions have been identified, the number of additional editions reliably identified is given in square brackets (e.g. as [at least 5 more edns. to 1870]). The sequence of British and Irish editions is then followed by citation of the first known North American edition before 1870, except in cases where the American edition preceded the British (in which case the latter provides the entry, and information about its American predecessor is provided in the main notes section). In cases where different editions appear to have been published in the first known year of publication in North America (e.g. in both New York and Philadelphia), the first of these alphabetically by place of publication is given, followed by the other(s).

     Details are also supplied of the first known translations into foreign languages up to 1870, with a record of titles where these differ substantively and/or interestingly from the English original.

NOTES

  1. Elliot Engel and Margaret F. King, The Victorian Novel before Victoria: British Fiction during the Reign of William IV, 1830–37 (London, 1984).
  2. Michael Sadleir, XIX Century Fiction: A Bibliographical Record Based on his own Collection, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1951); Robert Lee Wolff, Nineteenth-Century Fiction: A Bibliographical Catalogue, 5 vols. (New York, 1981–6).

Acknowledgements

Abbreviations

Introduction

Last modified 26 January, 2006 .
This document is maintained by
Anthony Mandal (Mandal@cf.ac.uk).