Professor Alison Wray - BA (Hons), D.Phil (York), FHEA, FAcSS, FLSW
Telephone: +44(0)29 208 74762
Location: John Percival Building, Colum Drive, Cathays, Cardiff
Formulaic language; language profiling; evolution of language; psycholinguistic theory; communication by and with people with dementia.
For a full list of Publications, click the publications tab.
In press Dementia and Language. In Chapelle, C.A. (ed). The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN: 9781405194730
2015 [2nd author Mike Wallace] Developing research expertise in applied linguistics: capacity-building for today?s interdisciplinary challenges. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 116 (1): 3-36.
2014. [2nd author Mike Wallace] Developing social science research expertise: a resource and guide for trainers. National Centre for Research Methods
2014 Developing comprehensive criteria of adequacy: the challenge of hybridity. In Gómez González, María de los Ángeles, Ruíz de Mendoza, Francisco José, Gonzálvez García, Francisco & Downing, Angela (eds.) The functional perspective on language and discourse: applications and implications. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp19-36.
2014. Formulaic language and threat: the problem of empathy and compassion in dementia interaction. In Schrauf, R. & Mueller, N. (ed) Dialogue and Dementia: Cognitive and Communicative Resources for Engagement. New York: Psychology Press, 263-86
2013. (first author Tess Fitzpatrick, 2nd author David Playfoot, 4th author Margaret J Wright) Establishing the reliability of word association data for investigating individual and group differences. Applied Linguistics, (Open Access)
2013. Mislaying compassion: linguistic triggers of inadequate caregiving. In Davis, B & Guendouzi, J. (eds) Pragmatics in dementia discourse. Advances in Pragmatics & Discourse. Newcastle-Upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 117-45.
2013. Timeline: Formulaic language. Language Teaching 46 (3): 1-19
2013. Formulaic sequences. In Chapelle, C.A. (ed). The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, vol 4, 2200-2205, ISBN: 9781405194730
2012. What do we (think we) know about formulaic language? An evaluation of the current state of play. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 32: 231 - 254
2012. Formulaic language. In Robinson, P (ed.) Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition. London: Routledge, 252-6.
2011. Formulaic language as a barrier to effective communication with people with Alzheimer’s Disease. Canadian Modern Languages Review 67(4) 429-458
2010. We’ve had a wonderful, wonderful thing: formulaic interaction when an expert has dementia. Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice 9 (4): 517-34
2010. [Second author: Tess Fitzpatrick]. Pushing speakers to the extreme: the artificial use of prefabricated material in conversation. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 4 (1): 37-51
2009. Future directions in formulaic language research. Journal of Foreign languages, 32 (6): 2-17.
2008. Formulaic language: pushing the boundaries. Oxford University Press.
2007. [Second author: George Grace] The consequences of talking to strangers: Evolutionary corollaries of socio-cultural influences on linguistic form. [588kB] Lingua 117 (3): 543-578.
2003. [Second author: Kazuhiko Namba] Formulaic language in a Japanese-English bilingual child: a practical approach to data analysis. Japanese Journal for Multilingualism and Multiculturalism 9 (1): 24-51. [16Mb PDF].
2000. [second author: Mick Perkins]: The functions of formulaic language: an integrated model. [286kB] Language & Communication 20 (1): 1-28.
2000. Formulaic sequences in second language teaching: principle and practice. [192kB] Applied Linguistics 21 (4): 463-489.
Publications by Alison Wray
In preparation. Critical Reading and Self-Critical Writing for Postgraduates. London: Sage. (3rd edition). 2016
Forthcoming Wray, A., [2nd author Huw Bell; 3rd author Katy Jones]. How native and non-speakers interpret unfamiliar formulaic sequences from Georgette Heyer’s novels. European Journal of English Studies.
In press. Dementia and Language. In Chapelle, C.A. (ed). The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN: 9781405194730
2015a [2nd author Mike Wallace] Developing research expertise in applied linguistics: capacity-building for today’s interdisciplinary challenges. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 116 (1): 3-36.
2014a. [2nd author Mike Wallace] Developing social science research expertise: a resource and guide for trainers. National Centre for Research Methods
2014b. Why are we so sure we know what a word is? In Taylor, John (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Word.
2014c. Formulaic language and threat: the problem of empathy and compassion in dementia interaction. In Schrauf, R. & Mueller, N. (ed) Dialogue and Dementia: Cognitive and Communicative Resources for Engagement. New York: Psychology Press, 263-86
2014d. Developing comprehensive criteria of adequacy: the challenge of hybridity. In Gómez González, María de los Ángeles, Gonzálvez García, Francisco & Ruíz de Mendoza, Francisco (eds.) Form and function in language: Functional, cognitive and applied perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
2013a. Timeline: Formulaic language. Language Teaching 46 (3): 1-19
2013b. Mislaying compassion: linguistic triggers of inadequate caregiving. In Davis, B & Guendouzi, J. (eds) Pragmatics in dementia discourse. Advances in Pragmatics & Discourse. Newcastle-Upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 117-45.
2013c. Future directions in formulaic language research. E-crini (online journal of Centre de Recherches sur les Identités Nationales et l'Interculturalité, University of Nantes).
2013d. Formulaic sequences. In Chapelle, C.A. (ed). The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, vol 4, 2200-2205, ISBN: 9781405194730
2013e. Formulaic language and second language learning. (Japanese translation). In Hatasa, Kasumi, Hatasa, Yukiko, Kudara, Masakazu, & Shimizu, Takafumi (eds). Daini gengo shuutoku kenkyuu to kyooiku. Tokyo: Kurosio Publishing
2013f. (first author Tess Fitzpatrick, 2nd author David Playfoot, 4th author Margaret J Wright) Establishing the reliability of word association data for investigating individual and group differences. Applied Linguistics, (Open Access)
2012a. What do we (think we) know about formulaic language? An evaluation of the current state of play. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 32: 231 - 254
2012b. Formulaic language: pushing the boundaries. Shanghai Foreign Language Teaching Press/Oxford University Press. [English language edition republished in China]
2012c. Formulaic language. In Robinson, P (ed.) Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition. London: Routledge, 252-6.
2012d. Formulaic language in Alzheimer’s Disease: patterns and implications for quality of life. Quality in Ageing and Older Adults 13 (3): 168-175
2012e. [2nd author: Aileen Bloomer] Projects in Linguistics, 3rd edition. London: Hodder.
2011a. Games for studying language origins and change. In Kuiper, Koenraad (ed.) Teaching linguistics: reflections on practice. London: Equinox, p.154-181
2011b. Formulaic language as a barrier to effective communication with people with Alzheimer’s Disease. Canadian Modern Language Review 67 (4): 429-458. DOI: 10.3138/cmlr.67.4.001
2011c. [2nd author: Mike Wallace] Accelerating the development of expertise: A step-change in social science research capacity-building. Special issue: Research capacity building in education, British Journal of Educational Studies 59 (3): 241-264. DOI: 10.1080/00071005.2011.599790
2011d. [First author: Mike Wallace]. Critical reading and writing for postgraduates. 2nd edition. London: Sage
2011e. [First author: Eugène Mollet; Third author: Tess Fitzpatrick]. Accessing second-order collocation through lexical co-occurrence networks. In Herbst, Thomas, Uhrig, Peter and Schüller, Susen (eds.) The phraseological view of language: a tribute to John Sinclair Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 87-121. 978-3-11-025688-8
2011f. [First author: Camilla Lindholm]. Proverbs and formulaic sequences in the language of elderly people with dementia. Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice. 10 (4): 603-623
2011g. [first author Wallace, M.] Scholarly reading as a model for scholarly writing, in Rocco, T. & Hatcher, T. (eds.) Demystifying the Writing and Publishing Process: a Guide for Emerging Scholars, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (2011), p.44-61.
2010a. We’ve had a wonderful, wonderful thing: formulaic interaction when an expert has dementia. Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice 9 (4): 517-34
2010b. [Second author: Tess Fitzpatrick]. Pushing speakers to the extreme: the artificial use of prefabricated material in conversation. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 4 (1): 37-51
2010c. [First author: Eugène Mollet; Third author: Tess Fitzpatrick; Fourth author: Naomi Wray; Fifth author: Margaret Wright]. Choosing the Best Tools for Comparative Analyses of Texts. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 15 (4): 429-473
2009a. Review of James R Hurford. The origins of meaning: language in the light of evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2007, xiii+388. (ISBN 978 0 19 920785 5). Functions of Language 16 (2): 298-308.
2009b. Preface: A research network model. In Fitzpatrick, T. and Barfield, A. (eds) Lexical Processing in Second Language Learners. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, xi-xvii.
2009c. Identifying formulaic language: Persistent challenges and new opportunities. In Corrigan, R., Moravcsik, E., Oulali, M & Wheatley, K. (eds) Formulaic Language: Volume 1, Structure, Distribution, Historical Change. Typological Studies in Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, chapter 2.
2009. Future directions in formulaic language research. Journal of Foreign languages, 32 (6): 2-17.
2009d. Conclusion: Navigating L2 collocation research. In Barfield, A. & Gyllstad, H. (eds.) Researching collocations in another language: multiple interpretations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 232-244
2009e. [Second author: Christine Pegg] The effect of memorized learning on the writing scores of Chinese IELTS test takers. IELTS Research Reports 9: 191-216
2009. [first author Wallace, M.] Complexity theory and emergent change. Case study. In Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. Research Methods for Business Students (5th ed) Harlow: Prentice Hall, 102-104.
2008f. The puzzle of language learning: from child’s play to ‘linguaphobia’. Language Teaching 41 (2): 255-273.
2008a. Genes and the conceptualisation of language knowledge. Genomics, Society, and Policy 4 (1): 58-73.
2008b. Formulaic sequences and language disorders. Ball, M., Perkins, M., Müller, N. & Howard, S. (eds.) Handbook of Clinical Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell, 184-197.
2008c. Formulaic language: pushing the boundaries. Oxford: Oxford University Press
2008d. [Second author: Tess Fitzpatrick] Why can’t you just leave it alone? Deviations from memorized language as a gauge of nativelike competence. Meunier, F. & Granger, S. (eds.) Phraseology in language learning and teaching. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 123-148.
2007a. Set phrases in second language acquisition. In Burger, H., Dobrovolskij, D., Kuehn, P. & Norrick, N. (eds.) Handbook of Phraseology. Berlin: De Gruyter.
2007b. ‘Needs only’ analysis in linguistic ontogeny and phylogeny. In Lyon, C., Nehaniv, C.L. & Cangelosi, A. (eds.) Emergence of Communication and Language. Springer, 53-70
2007c. [Second author: George Grace] The consequences of talking to strangers: Evolutionary corollaries of socio-cultural influences on linguistic form. PDF download of publication [588Kb] Lingua 117 (3): 543-578.
2006a. Joining the dots: the evolutionary picture of language and music. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 16 (1): 103-5.
2006b. Formulaic Language. In Brown, K. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 2nd edition. Oxford: Elsevier. 2006, vol.4 pp.590-597.
2006c. [second author: Aileen Bloomer] Projects in Linguistics: a Practical Guide to Researching Language. (2nd edition). London: Arnold.
2006d. [Second author: Aileen Bloomer] Projects in Linguistics (2nd edition). London: Arnold.
2006e. [First author: Tess Fitzpatrick] Breaking up is not so hard to do: individual differences in L2 memorisation. Canadian Modern Language Review 63 (1): 35-57
2006f. [First author: Mike Wallace]. Critical Reading and Self-critical Writing for Postgraduates. London: Sage.
2006g. [first author: Mike Wallace]. Critical Reading and Self-Critical Writing for Postgraduates. London: Sage.
2005a. The explanatory advantages of the holistic protolanguage model: the case of linguistic irregularity. Commentary on Arbib. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2): 147-8.
2005b. The broadening scope of animal communication research. In Tallerman, M. (ed.) Language origins: perspectives on evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2005, 232-238
2005c. Looking at the WHY in Phraseology: a psycholinguistic perspective on patterns in text. In Cosme, C., Gouverneur, C., Meunier, F. & Paquot, M. (eds.) Phraseology 2005: The many faces of phraseology. Louvain-la-Neuve: Université Catholique de Louvain, 23-26.
2005d. Idiomaticity in an L2: linguistic processing as a predictor of success. In Beavan, B. (ed.) IATEFL 2005: Cardiff Conference Selections, Canterbury: IATEFL, 53-60.
2005e. ‘Needs only analysis’ in linguistic ontogeny and phylogeny‘. [100kB] In Cangelosi, A. (ed.) Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on the Emergence and Evolution of Linguistic Communication. Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour (AISB), Hatfield, April 2005.
2005f. [Second author: John Staczek] One word or two? Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic interpretations of meaning in a court case. International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law 12 (1): 1-18.
2004a. 'Here's one I prepared earlier': formulaic language learning on television. In Schmitt, N. (ed.). The acquisition and use of formulaic sequences. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 249-268.
2004b. [with: Stephen Cox, Mike Lincoln and Judy Tryggvason] A formulaic approach to translation at the Post Office: reading the signs.[231kB] Language and Communication 24 (1): 59-75.
2003a. Pronouncing texts by an Italian-trained Cretan working in Germany. In Caldi, M. (ed.) Franciscos Leondaritis, Missa super aller mi faut [sur] la verdure. Bavaria. York: Early Music Press.
2003b. Pronouncing settings of Latin texts by a 17th Century French composer. In Gameson, P. (ed.). Jean-Baptiste Boesset, Messe du Quatrième Mode. York: Early Music Press.
2003c. [Second author: Kazuhiko Namba]. Formulaic language in a Japanese-English bilingual child: a practical approach to data analysis. Japanese Journal for Multilingualism and Multiculturalism 9 (1): 24-51. [16Mb PDF]
2002a. Formulaic language and the lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (xi + 332)
2002b. Formulaic language in computer-supported communication: theory meets reality. Language Awareness 11 (2): 114-131.
2002c. (ed.) The Transition to Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2002d. ‘Dual processing in protolanguage: competence without performance’. In Wray, A. (ed.) The Transition to Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2002e. Pronouncing music texts from 16th Century Venice. In Seymour, P. (ed.) Andrea Gabrieli, Missa quando lieta speravi. York: Early Music Press.
2002f. Approaching the pronunciation of early 17th Century English texts. In Gameson, P. (ed.). William Lawes, Psalms ‘to common tunes’, vol. I. York: Early Music Press.
2002g. Pronouncing the Latin texts of early 17th century choral music from the Low Countries. In Seymour, P. (ed.) Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Four motets from Cantiones Sacrae. York: Early Music Press.
2000a. Pronunciation of the texts. In Salisbury Cathedral Boy Choristers, Gabrieli Consort & Paul McCreesh. John Sheppard: Missa Cantata. CD recording 457 658-2. Deutsche Grammophon/Archiv, CD booklet, p.9
2000b. Holistic utterances in protolanguage: the link from primates to humans. In Knight, C., Studdert-Kennedy, M. & Hurford, J. The Evolutionary Emergence of Language: Social function and the origins of linguistic form. New York: Cambridge University Press, 285-302
2000c. Formulaic sequences in second language teaching: principle and practice. Applied Linguistics 21 (4): 463-489.
2000d. (second author: Mick Perkins): The functions of formulaic language: an integrated model. [286kB] Language & Communication 20 (1): 1-28.
1999a. Singers on the trail of ‘authentic’ Early Modern English: the puzzling case of /æ:/ and /ɛ:/. Transactions of the Philological Society 97 (2): 185-211.
1999b. Formulaic language in learners and native speakers. Language Teaching 32 (4): 213-231
1998a. Protolanguage as a holistic system for social interaction. [1.24Mb] Language & Communication 18: 47-67.
1998b. [second authors: Kate Trott and Aileen Bloomer] Projects in Linguistics: a Practical Guide to Researching Language. London: Arnold. (BAAL book prize finalist, 1999)
1997 (ed.) [first editor: Ann Ryan] Evolving Models of Language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
1996. The occurrence of 'occurance' and 'alot' of other things 'aswell': Patterns of errors in undergraduate English. In Blue, G. & Mitchell, R. (eds.) Language and Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters: 94-106.
1995a. The sound of Latin in England before and after the Reformation. In Morehen, J. (ed) English Choral Practice c.1450-1625. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 74-89.
1995b. English pronunciation c.1500-1700. In Morehen, J. (ed) English Choral Practice c.1450-1625. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 90-108.
1992a. The Focusing Hypothesis: The Theory of Left Hemisphere Lateralised Language Re-examined. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
1992b. Pronunciation. In Knighton, T. & Fallows, D. (eds) The Dent Everyman Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music. London: Dent: 292-299.
1992c. Authentic Pronunciation for Early Music. In Paynter, J., Orton, R., Seymour, P. & Howell, T. (eds) Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought. London & New York: Routledge: 1051-1064.
1990a. The Singers' Language Project . Voice Research Society Newsletter 4 (2): 13-14.
1990b. The dual systems ('focusing') hypothesis: a right hemisphere account for left hemisphere language. Speculations in Science and Technology 13 (1): 3-12.
1989. The values and shortcomings of phonetic script as a tool for singers. Singing 16: 21-24.
1988. Phonetic transcription for singers? Voice Research Society Newsletter 3(1): 5-7
The central focus of my research is developing innovative models that can account for patterns observed in language. My primary contribution in the past few years has been in characterising formulaic language (prefabricated wordstrings).
Formulaic language encompasses strings of words that:
- appear to be stored whole in memory for convenience (e.g. thank you very much; what I mean is)
- are particularly frequent in text (e.g. in the middle of?)
- have a social importance for particular people (e.g. present arms)
- are memorised or repeated,
- and/or are non-compositional in form or meaning (e.g. by and large; woe betide).
Drawing on observations of formulaic language in a variety of contexts, I have developed models of how language is learned, processed and stored, and have applied them, through experiments and other investigations, to issues in first and second language acquisition, language disability and the evolution of language. I have written about the role of formulaic language in translation, the capacity for formulaic language materially to improve the quality of a non-native speaker's interaction, and the nature of formulaic language in language disorders including Alzheimer’s Disease.
Linguistic theory at the boundaries: The development of macro-theory that relates linguistic form and function to the cognitive and social aspects of language behaviour. Rooted in the models of formulaic language acquisition and use (see above) more recently they have broadened to examine the ‘word’ as an inherently vague phenomenon, and language as a fundamentally hybrid system. Current work entails a new theory of how cognitive and social pressures on language production are managed into a steady state of fluency using options in form selection.
Communicative Impact: In 2014, I began work on a new model of how the act of communication interfaces with language processing. It draws together socio-interactional and pragmatic theory with models of cognition, to demonstrate how forms of language are shaped by what we need to achieve through communication, and how language is used to make good shortfalls in communication when the speaker is under cognitive pressure. The model combines my previous work on formulaic language, Alzheimer’s Disease and second language acquisition, and it is designed to offer opportunities for experimental interventions in situations where communication is typically undermined by reduced cognitive capacity and/or lexical access problems, including Alzheimer’s and post-childhood foreign language learning. The model is being written up in book form, with a target completion date in 2016. I am developing training materials to support professional and family carers of people with dementia, that address the causes and potential to alleviate the stress of being a carer in this context.
Language profiling: Supported by a £40,000 grant from Alzheimer’s BRACE, I am PI on a project exploring early linguistic markers of risk for future Alzheimer’s disease. The study participants are part of a parent project called PREVENT, funded by the Alzheimer’s Society (PI Prof Craig Ritchie, University of Edinburgh). The research builds on previous projects that examined and developed new approaches for analysing written or spoken language samples, to inform questions such as: the capacity for individual foreign language learners to adopt nativelike strategies (e.g. in relation to risk); assisting language examiners to differentiate the output of proficient learners from the (often identical) output of text memorisers; identifying measurable linguistic features (including pseudo-quantified qualitative features) for genetic profiling; the development of normative measures for the language of older people. Collaborators in this work included Dr Tess Fitzpatrick (Swansea) and geneticists at the Queensland Institute for Medical Research, Brisbane.
Current and past funded projects:
- 2015: £3000 from the ESRC Impact Accelerator fund. This project focusses on developing training materials to support those who care for people with dementia. These materials are the ‘impact’ dimension of my current research into ‘communicative impact’, which examines the unaccustomed pragmatic spaces that are created in conversations with a person with dementia.
- 2014-15: £40,000 grant from Alzheimer’s BRACE to look for early linguistic markers of future Alzheimer’s disease. Co-investigators and researchers: Dr Andreas Buerki, Prof Tess Fitzpatrick, Dr Michael Willett, Dr Katy Jones. Poster from the 2015 Brace Annual meeting
- 2014: £5000 from the Cardiff University College for Arts and Social Sciences Pilot project fund, to test the research instruments for the Alzheimer’s BRACE project. The pilot was conducted in collaboration with members of the Monmouth University of the Third Age
- 2010-14: £100,000 from the ESRC Researcher Development Initiative scheme, to develop training materials for enhancing expert thinking and problem solving in the social sciences. Co-I: Professor Mike Wallace, Cardiff University. Publications: 2014a, 2015a
- 2010-12: £303,000 from the Welsh Assembly Government. I was academic director of a project exploring how to improve the teaching of Welsh to adults. Collaborators were from the Cardiff Welsh for Adults Centre and School of Welsh and Oxford and Swansea Universities.
- 2010-11: £76,000 from the ESRC, for psycholinguistic phenotyping of lexical retrieval preferences through an analysis of word association behaviour. PI: Dr Tess Fitzpatrick, Swansea University. Researcher: Dr David Playfoot. In collaboration with genetic epidemiologists at the Queensland Institute for Medical Research, Brisbane. This work compared teenage and >65 yr old twins, to identify patterns of difference in word retrieval. Publications so far: 2013f
- 2007-08: £100,000 from the AHRC to develop new analytic techniques for profiling language phenotypes in genetic research. Co-I: Dr Tess Fitzpatrick; researcher: Eugene Mollet. In collaboration with genetic epidemiologists at the Queensland Institute for Medical Research, Brisbane. This work entailed a multifaceted programme of profiles of written data by native speaker twins, in order to explore the relative roles of genetics and environment on patterns in linguistic performance. Publications: 2010c, 2011e
- 2006-07: £13,000 from IELTS to develop a practical approach to the accurate evaluation of linguistic knowledge when memorised material is reproduced in language tests. Co-I Dr Christine Pegg, Cardiff University and IELTS. Publications: 2009e
- 2002-03: £51,000 from the AHRB for research into how unintentional changes during the reproduction of memorised material indicate both the linguistic knowledge of language learners, and their attitude to risk. Project researcher: Tess Fitzpatrick. Publications: 2006e, 2008e, 2010b
- 1999-2000: £5,000 from the Nuffield Foundation for analysis of data from TALK, a conversation aid for people with cerebral palsy, based on formulaic language. Publications: 2002b, 2010b
- 1988-91: £61,000 from the Leverhulme Trust for practical and theoretical work on pronunciation in singing. Publications: 1988, 1989, 1990a, 1992b,c, 1995a,b, 1999a, 2000a, 2002e-g, 2003a,b.
Student support and capacity building
In 2002 I founded an informal association of researchers called the Formulaic Language Research Network (FLaRN), which now, as e-FLaRN, has more than 200 members. It is primarily aimed at PhD students but also has many members in academic posts. If you are interested in joining, please email email@example.com for information. Since 2004, FLaRN has had a biennial conference. The next conference is expected to be hosted by the Dept of English Philology, University of Vilnius, Lithuania, June 28-30th 2016.
I supervise PhD students on aspects of formulaic language in first and second language contexts, including language attrition. I am also a supervisor on the distance PhD programme in Applied Linguistics (Lexical Studies).
Current PhD students:
- Mark Maby: Second language learners’ acquisition of polysemous words
- Paula Psyllakis: Formulaic language in Alzheimer’s Disease.
- Mike Green: The role of phonological patterns and etymology in the acquisition of formulaic sequences
- Stephen Cutler: The role of formulaic language in speech memorisation and production in L2 speakers of English
Past successful PhD students
- Helen Emery: Spelling in Arab learners of English. Awarded 2005
- Iain McGee: Formulaic Language and Second Language Learning/Teaching. Awarded 2006.
- Kazuhiko Namba: Bilingual children’s code-switching: a structural approach and formulaic language. Awarded May 2008.
- Yanling Su: Formulaic language acquisition and individual differences. Awarded December 2008.
- Amjad Saleem: Memorising in a language you don’t speak. Awarded 2015.
From time to time, workshops on formulaic language are organised under the auspices of the School’s Advanced Research Residencies scheme - a forum for PhD students and visiting scholars to discuss issues in their research.
In a separate strand of research and training, I have explored the nature of research expertise in the social sciences, particularly ‘thinking like an expert’. This work, with Mike Wallace as co-I, was supported by a three-year ESRC Researcher Development Initiative Award (see Wray & Wallace 2011 for an account of the principles). Mike and I are also co-authors of Critical Reading and Writing for Postgraduates and conduct workshops for PhD and early career researchers on this topic. In 2010 I gained two coaching qualifications and am now developing a brand of coaching suitable for the university research context.
In the past I have also researched historical pronunciation, reconstructing English and other languages for performances and recordings of early music. In this capacity I have advised on over 80 commercial CD recordings (including some international award winners), BBC broadcasts and major public concerts.
To date I have published more than 90 book chapters, journal papers and other articles in the linguistics and musical spheres. Most of them are listed under ‘publications’
1983: BA (Hons) in linguistics with German and Hindi, Dept of Language & Linguistic Science, University of York, UK
1988: DPhil in psycholinguistics, Dept of Language & Linguistic Science, University of York, UK
1988-91: Researcher on the Singers? Language Project, Dept of Music, University of York, UK. Funded by Leverhulme Trust
1991-96: Lecturer/Senior Lecturer in linguistics, College of Ripon & York St John, York, UK
1996-99: Assistant Director, Wales Applied Language Research Unit, Centre for Applied Language Studies, Swansea University, UK
1999-02: Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Language & Communication Research, Cardiff University, UK
2002-05: Senior Lecturer/Reader, as above
2005-07: Professor, as above
2007 to present: Research Professor, as above
Major administrative roles:
2005-present: Director of Research for the School of English, Communication and Philosophy
2014-present: Director of the Centre for Language & Communication Research
Honours, prizes and memberships
2014 - Elected Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales (FLSW)
2014 - Visiting Professor, York St John University, UK
2013 - Board Member, Alzheimer?s Society Grant Advisory Board
2012 - ESRC Peer Review College
2009 - Editorial Board, Yearbook of Phraseology
2008 - Member of Advisory Committee, Bristol Centre for Linguistics
2008 - Elected Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences (AcSS)
2007 - Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (FHEA)
2006 - Visiting academic at the Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Queensland Institute for Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
2005 - Erskine Fellow, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
2004 - BBS Associate (Behavioral and Brain Sciences)
2004-7 - Member of AHRC Peer Review College
2003 - Formulaic Language and the Lexicon won annual BAAL Book Prize
2001 - Member of the Institute of Learning and Teaching
1999 - Projects in Linguistics shortlisted for annual BAAL Book Prize
1984-7 - British Academy Major State Award